The benefits of charging for those who want to be healthy and beautiful, hard childhood. Yes, so boring that the farther the mile and seems pleasant sofa watching TV. Doubts about the friendly attitude of soft companion on four legs occur when the body is in the eyes begins to "bleed."
On the figure of Apollo and Aphrodite's dream may not be worth it, but attractive relief on the spot where now hangs limply zhirok - it is affordable to everyone. Provided that you do really want and are willing to pay the embodiment of desire for 2-3 hours a week.
To her own reflection in the mirror since the beginning of good news, need to buy a subscription to the gym, to fit into someone else's schedule and acquire expensive sport belongings. For the start of classes will need space in the apartment, dumbbells (2-3 kilogram for men, 1-2 for women-kilogram) and comfortable clothes (shorts or sweat pants and t-shirt).
But before you begin to them, it is necessary to go to the doctor to make sure that the training benefit you and not harm. In the future, even if you feel perfectly healthy, the doctor should visit at least once in six months. In addition to the confidence that everything is in order, it will allow you to receive unbiased results of their training.
At the doctor's.
Health - a relative term. If nothing does not hurt, it does not mean that everything is fine, so before the training you need to load the doctor has limited depending on the age and condition of the body.
"It is absolutely healthy person needs to go to an appointment with a therapist to know their blood pressure and vascular tone, make the cardiogram and the picture of the spine - the doctor said, physiotherapist, physical therapist, employee health and rehabilitation center sports complex" Kimberley Land "Olga Shaposhnikov . - If a man find problems with blood pressure, heart or spine (scoliosis, a herniated disc, the displacement of the vertebrae), the burden necessarily limited.
If you want to have a productive, for example, to build muscle with a deficit of weight, it would be great to go for a consultation with a sports physician (LFK, a physician-rehabilitator). He will give exactly the base of exercises that will lead to muscle growth. In addition, if the doctor knows the basics of nutrition, is aware of the innovations of various fitness, best adviser you will not find. "
Overweight, which often leads to the decision to do sports, do not always arises only out of love a tasty meal and lie down on the couch after dinner. It can lead to obesity various disorders of metabolism (including diabetes), cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the extra weight will inevitably lead to problems with your back and spine when uncontrolled physical activity contraindicated.
According to Olga Shaposhnikova, fat people need to know your body mass index, cause of obesity, place deposits of fat, and it will have to go to an endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, cardiologist and physician. Be sure to pass the stress tests (exercise test), when a person needs to pedal (bicycle stress test) or walk on a treadmill (tredmil), but this time removed cardiogram. Load tests are very significant and can accurately assess the necessary constraints. Well, if before and after training have the opportunity to try on blood pressure.
Restrictions apply not only to the cores, but all of untrained people who overdo it, achieve sharp overwork the heart muscle, which guarantees a long malaise. To see whether you train, evaluate their health. A good sign - it is when you feel good all week and after a workout. In hypertensive patients should not be headache, dizziness, flies, veil before the eyes, in hypotensive - lethargy, weakness, apathy, very very tired. If during exercise you develop these symptoms, it is necessary to rebuild the training program, in consultation with a sports doctor and trainer.
Absolute contraindications for sports are rare: it's kidney and liver failure, postinfarction state, cardiac arrhythmias, and so on. D. - That is, a disease in which a sick man and he does not want to train. But even in such cases it is possible and even necessary to engage in physical therapy - strictly under medical supervision.
Swimming: except those contraindications, there is virtually no restrictions. Even if you are not able to swim, any exercise in the water - it's a workout, even if it is minimal. No wonder the sports complex rehabilitation after various diseases classes in the pool on the first place.
Running: It is important to check the condition of the liver, because when it is running serious injuries can worsen the condition of the person: increases blood circulation, and blood vessels are not ready - and begins to stab in the side. A healthy person has tingling in his side while running netrenirovannosti says. In this case you should simply replace jogging brisk walking.
Aerobics: if there are any changes in the spine, it is necessary to eliminate the jumps and allow yourself a load of low to medium intensity. Focus on your health: there should be no pain and shortness of breath. If they appeared, immediately reduces the rate of training. If you feel very tired, palpitations, suddenly flushed face, dry mouth - it's obvious signs of stress.
After surgery and severe illnesses.
Exercise after injury and serious diseases is required, but strictly under the supervision of a physician LFK. Even if this was not a specialist at the hospital where you were lying, he is bound to have in the clinic. LFC doctor will make recommendations based on your condition is. For two people with the same diagnosis, they may be different, so do not use the tips that got a neighbor, and consult a doctor in person, even better - sign up for "their" team, and you'll be sure that they are doing right. It is available, it is only important to organize yourself and go to the clinic.
Where are the muscles.
In all, the most minimal movement attended several, or even dozens of muscles. To pour a glass of water, it is necessary to use a huge amount of muscle. We did not really notice how they work, until we move. But it is necessary to restrict their work, for example, a plaster cast, and after a couple of weeks where there was a muscle, it may be concave. Without moving the muscles atrophy quickly, lose weight and shrink right before your eyes.
In exercising human muscle increases energy potential biochemical reactions take place quickly and efficiently. Weight (due to muscle, not fat!) Increases and the parallel increasing the diameter of the bone, compacted cortical layer, in places tendon bony prominences become bigger and stronger. Thus, at the expense of training people is growing in every sense, even if his body does not turn into a mountain hilly muscles.
How to form muscle fibers, is still not very clear. Scientific studies have shown that the number of them in all men and about the same exercise any appreciable change in their number does not bring. So and Schwarzenegger, and the one whose sports are limited to walking for a beer, the same number of muscle fibers.
The secret of the strength and beauty of a healthy body does not lie in the amount of muscle, and their weight. It grows at the expense of ... the destruction of muscle during exercise. Each muscle fiber is surrounded by a fine network of blood vessels. The sheer number makes it possible to quickly sum up each millimeter of fiber a large flow of blood carrying it with oxygen and nutrients and takes away with the products of metabolism. While resting muscle, blood vessels, some "work", while others are closed.
But when she and a lot of stress doing the work, all the capillaries open, and comes to the muscle 16 times more blood than at rest. Physical activity leads to microfractures like muscle tissue, and immediately after exercise people due to its destruction of several losing weight. However, during the rest mechanism is triggered supercompensation: muscle mass not only restored to the previous level, but - "reserve" - skips forward past performance. Supercompensation effect not only in the growth of muscle mass, but also to improve the quality of muscles.
Even regular, with all the rules, training does not lead to noticeable results instantly. It will take several months. Before you start training, measure performance of their physical development, then in a year you will be able to objectively and not only in the mirror, evaluate their own progress.
Overall weight and growth rate determines how much weight per one inch of body growth. Calculated by the formula: rate = weight in grams / height in centimeters. Medium ranges from 350 to 450 On obesity said number exceeds 550, an emaciation - 300 less necessary to consider that the human high rate somewhat less than the undersized.
Erisman indicator establishes the development of the chest and is calculated as follows: chest circumference at rest (cm) - 0.5 growth standing (see). Results from 1 to 5 indicate the average development of the chest, the athletes it can be and more. Negative numbers occur in people of tall, skinny and physically underdeveloped. Body figure fortress standing height = - (w + chest size). Measure its worth only in the absence of obesity.
10-15 - a strong constitution;
16-20 - good;
21-25 - Average;
26-30 - weak;
31 and more - very weak.
Proportionality index of physical development does not say anything about the success of the training, it only states what you are gifted by nature, and what kind of sports you are more likely to achieve success. Calculated as follows: standing height - sitting height / height sitting x 100.
Index is less than 87% - behind leg length relative to the length of the body; 87-92 - proportional to the physical development; more than 92 - relatively long legs to the length of the trunk. With long legs easier to achieve success in basketball, volleyball, women's middle and long distance, in the high jump.
Short-legged athletes often differ in lifting weights and wrestling, where success is largely determined by the force. However, if a professional sports figure proportional to the physical development of the game and may have some value, for those who are engaged in for the sake of himself, he plays a cognitive role. Matter how long you trained legs of become shorter or longer.
From the very beginning of the course it is necessary to take into account all the parameters of physical development. In addition to actually exercise it is very desirable to run, swim, ski. If the overall weight and the growth rate is more than 550, pass a medical examination to determine the cause of obesity, and revise your diet.
Error N 1: All at once.
The decision finally pay attention to a laudable, but the excessive zeal in the early lessons very quickly able to extinguish the fighting zeal. In poorly trained people intensive loads lead to tearing of muscle fibers or their outer shell. The result - a terrible pain the next day, which is 2-3 weeks completely makes it impossible to exercise. Well even if the desire remains.
Error N 2: Pain requires a break.
Even relatively small loads can lead to accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles, which irritates nerve endings, and also causes pain. If properly warm up, it will be not so sharp and will pass quickly.
Error N 3: The greater the fatigue, the better.
The load should be sufficient to make you feel it not only in the classroom, but also when resting. After a workout, you should feel easy (!), Pleasantly tired, but do not feel a crock.
Error N 4: The body adapts to the result.
Any exercise is only useful when the load correspond to the potential of the body. If the result of the pursuit of a break, then the body has no time for the high demands, rebel. Surge drop operation, training will become a burden, will insomnia, irritability, lethargy. The main signs that you train properly - it's a good, steady mood, sound sleep and unquenchable desire to train.
Error N 5: Holding his breath, you can more.
A very common mistake: focusing on exercise, a newcomer holds his breath and does all the load on the left, who had to breathe. Even if you manage to do like a few times, it is better from it will not. All sets of exercises based on the fact that the load requires exhale while relaxing - breath.
To drink or not to drink?
"Previously, it was believed that during and after exercise can not drink at all, because the more liquid comes out of the person who wants to lose weight, the more intense metabolism and the more calories are burned, - says Olga Shaposhnikov. - On this subject, there are many different theories, and today a clear answer to the question: Is it possible to drink and if so, how much - does not exist.
When a person is engaged in, he loses a lot of fluids. The volume of blood circulating in the body decreases, and it is bad for the heart. It becomes hard, and you still do, doubly increasing the burden on him. If you want to drink, do not deny yourself this. But do not rush to extremes. Drink a liter in one fell swoop - it's too much, too: the blood volume increases, and the heart is forced to "pump" through a more than usual, and even under load. This leads to tachycardia.
It is best to drink plain water instead of juice, tea or coffee (which is generally an hour before the workout is undesirable). To limit yourself and do not go on about their own thirst, put next to a half-liter bottle of water. You can drink before, during and after exercise. The main thing - do not exceed the limit. Drink, but be aware that you can only drink so much, how much is left in the bottle. After a workout, not drink, only when you feel that breathing was restored and pulse returned to normal. Obese people allowed to drink a little more lean and low - less ".
How to eat.
A full, balanced diet includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and volatile. In the first place of importance are proteins, the building blocks of muscle tissue. Their main sources - meat, fish, poultry, eggs, cheese, milk, cheese, eggs.
It is believed that the rate of daily consumption of protein varies from 110 to 160 g per day. Their individual rate can be calculated by taking into account that 1 kg own weight requires 1.5-2 grams per day. At least half of the daily dose of protein should be of animal origin.
Vegetable proteins, which are particularly rich in legumes (peas, beans, lentils, soy) are not able to replace animal proteins, so a vegetarian diet during training is dangerous depletion of the body. Restore destroyed during exercise muscle cells, and even make their stock, the body in a state only if it has a building material - food proteins. Protein hunger force the body to expend hard proteins own tissues, "eating" itself. As a result, instead of rising, the muscles will thinning and weakening.
An important component of good nutrition - fats, which provide a rich source of energy. It is recommended for 1 kg own weight consume 1.5-2 grams of fat. Not less than 75% of the total amount of fat should be of animal origin.
The main consumer of carbohydrates - skeletal muscle. Wasting them, muscles are more economical than other types of food consumption. Carbohydrates are found in flour products, sugar, starch, sweets, that is most often are of vegetable origin. Of animal products rich in carbohydrates most milk and dairy products. Carbohydrate consumption rate calculated from 6-9 g on 1 kg dead weight, i.e. 4-5 times greater than the proteins and fats.
To understand how much you need carbohydrates, it is important not to rush to extremes. On the one hand, excess carbohydrates, especially those who tend to be overweight, easily converted into fat, on the other hand - the weight of carbohydrates in the diet of an adult under any circumstances should not fall below 300 grams per day. These carbohydrates are necessary for normal functioning of proteins and fats, and provide some other vital body functions.
Average ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet - 1: 1: 4, the athletes, it varies slightly - 1: 0.8: 4. Considered the optimal daily ration of 2.5-3 kg. In addition, the body constantly needs vitamins. Although they do not actively participate in building muscle tissue, vitamin deficiency leads to poor health and poor health.
Training can not begin immediately after a meal. Filled stomach is pressing the diaphragm, the blood rushed to the digestive organs, locomotor activity decreased. If you eat is not very tight, you can start classes in 30-40 minutes. The break between the wholesome lunch and classes must be no less than one and a half hours.
Expert's Advice: Increasing muscle mass.
1 Power 5-6 meals a day with intervals between meals 2-3 hours.
2 At each meal should fall 20-25 grams of complete protein.
3 Combine the use of protein foods of animal origin (meat, fish) with vegetables and fruits. Winter and spring in addition to take vitamin and mineral supplements.
4 Do not feel hunger during the shaping of training, which requires to eat 1-1.5 hours before training.
5 Try to avoid long-term sustainable state of stress (depressed mood, anger, depression).
6 Be sure to observe the regularity of training and nutrition (specific days and times).
Reducing excess weight:
1 Power 4-5 meals a day with intervals between meals 2-3 hours.
2 At each meal should be no more than 20 grams of mono-and disaccharides.
3 Three hours before exercise can not eat animal proteins, it is possible - vegetable proteins, vegetables, fruits, tea, coffee, infusion, all without sugar (no more than 400 calories).
4 Three hours after training do not eat any food except tea or coffee, or infusions of grasses, rosehips, mineral water and special drinks mineral carbohydrate according to the scheme.
5 Three hours after the workout is necessary in the first place to eat vegetables and fruits, berries in their raw form (but no more than 100 calories), even after two hours is possible a normal meal.
6 To save the biological value and increase the percentage of assimilation of food components should be prepared dishes sparing culinary techniques (allowance, short cooking until done).
7 Do not use any herbs, spices, spicy and smoked foods.
8. overweight limit your intake of foods containing high amounts of sugar and fat, as well as should not be eating 3 hours before bedtime.
1 Power 4-6 meals a day with intervals between meals 2-3 hours.
2 Observe the composition of a minimum set of products for the trainees.
3 When overweight do not eat foods that contain large amounts of sugar and fat: cakes, pies, cakes, chocolate, candy.
The minimum set of food for one day should contain (regardless of age and type of training):
vegetables, herbs, roots, herbs - 10 titles (400 g);
fruits, berries - 2-3 here (300 g);
milk, dairy products - 200-300 ml;
black bread - 60-100 g;
fresh vegetable oil - 15-20 g;
meat, fish, poultry, boiled - 50-60 g;
Potatoes - 200-300 g;
cereals (buckwheat, oatmeal, millet and so on. d.) - 40-60 year