Bridge (English. Bridge) - smart card team game. Sports bridge - the only card game, which is an Olympic sport in idom. In the bridge is played by two teams of two members, one pair of players sitting opposite each other. Traditionally, the players are referred to the cardinal points: North (N), East (E), South (S) and West (W). North and South play against East and West. Application and lottery conducted in a clockwise direction.
History and types of bridge.
Direct ancestor of the bridge was whist - doubles in bribes, in which trump determined at hand. In the 1890s there was a variation of whist, in which the dealer declared trump, on the basis of their cards. Rules similar to the modern bridge robbernomu emerged in 1925.
Bridge to pay attention to many well-known personalities such as Winston Churchill, Margaret Thatcher, Deng Xiaoping, Bill Gates and others. According to legend status in the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, last but not least determine the success of the bridzhevym table. In the last years of his life, Deng Xiaoping kept himself only official post - honorary chairman of China Association of Bridge. The simplest form of the game is robberny bridge in which four players compete, two against two, as long as one of the couples will not win two games.
In the sports bridge compete simultaneously 8 or more players. Usually, tournaments are organized in the form of doubles competition, but can also team and individual competitions. During the tournament, the same surrender played by several participants in the tournament and wins, who played better than others on the same maps.
For the game uses a standard deck of 52 cards from deuce to ace all four suits. In the distribution of each player receives 13 cards. One of the players is of the dealer. In robbernom bridge the dealer distributes cards one by one in a clockwise direction, starting with the opponent on the left and ending with a. At the same time, for the convenience of the players, the dealer shuffles partner change, which will be played next. Handing over the change in a clockwise direction, that is, the next opponent of the dealer becomes the left.
In the sports bridge one of the players of the dealer is already defined in each delivery, but the process of shuffling the cards is not significantly different from robbernogo bridge. The main difference here is that in the sports bridge cards are only once at the beginning of the tournament or match, with a view to a few participants were able to play the same layouts.
Main article: Trade (bridge).
After the deal, all players pick up their cards and the dealer starts the betting. During trading, players take turns doing the application. Applications may be one of four types: Passing - an empty application. Declared pass can give any other application for the next round.
Order - the player says how many bribes of more than six undertakes to take the couple and orders trump or no trump game. Each subsequent order must be higher than the previous, or by the number of bribes or for trump. Precedence of bids: 1 ?, ?, 1 1 1 ?, ?, 1 notrump 2? ... 7BK.
Contra - in response to the order of opponents, you can say "counter", with the cost of the game increases. Redouble - you can say in response to dissent opponents. If in early trade all four players have said "pass" all get to 0 points and delivery is completed.
Trade stops after three passes in a row, followed the meaningful application. The final application (with a possible X or redoubled) is called a contract. In a pair, made a late booking, the player who first said ordered trump becomes declarer and his partner - a blockhead (English. Dummy). Opponent plays a couple called whist.
Trading systems and conventions.
Main article: Trading Systems and Conventions (bridge) During the game, the pair are allowed to share information about the cards, but there are two important limitations: Information can be transferred only with the help of applications in the course of trade, and by playing cards during the draw.
All transmitted information should be available opponents. At a minimum, the player has to explain the meaning of any application or game cards his partner once asked about this opponent. In major tournaments for these purposes are often used so-called convention card, revealing the essence of the agreements couples.
Thus, the pair may have different meanings for different applications, provided that the opponents have the opportunity to familiarize themselves with their values. However, in some tournaments may be limitations on certain values of certain applications.
The set of values of different applications couple called her trading system. There are many trading systems, with some of the most popular in Russia are common language, Precision, Birch, French and Polish original standard. Applications, dissent, and even redouble passes can be both natural and conventional.
Application is considered to be a natural application, which implies a certain length in the said suit. For example, the discovery of one peak, indicating at least five cards in the height will be considered natural. Conventional or unnatural application informs the information associated with the named suit. For example, the opening of one of the clubs showing 16 points and says nothing about the suits will be unnatural.
Original application in notrump assumes a uniform distribution of colors (no stripes of more than 5 and less than 2 cards) and a certain number of points in accordance with the partnership agreement. Conventional notrump bid may report very different. The most commonly used examples of such conventions are unusual notrump and Blackwood.
Natural contraception (also known as the penalty) suggests a desire to put opponents booked contract. Conventional dissent carries a different meaning. The most common example of this dissent is a takeout double, which is used at low levels of trade and pledging support to unnamed suits.
The decision about what kind of suit and at what level called, is one of the most fundamental in the bridge. As a rule, it will depend on the assessment of hands partners. There are several methods of assessing the strength of the hand, the base of which is the calculation of the forces on the basis of paragraphs Milton Wark. It may be supplemented by more sophisticated methods, such as counting of lost bribery law of total tricks and score points Zar.
Main article: Drawing (bridge). First move your opponent makes a point guard to the left. After this idiot puts his cards on the table and cards playmaker controls, pointing to doodle, which card to go with the table. The game is the same as in other games in bribes with one important feature: the trump is optional. The result of the draw is the number of tricks won by each pair, no matter who is in the pair received a bribe.
Scoring (Robberny bridge).
In robbernom bridge game is divided into independent robbery. Rober record looks like this:
- | -
- | -
60 | 40
There are two types of points - points "below the line" are for the ordered and played contracts Points "above the line" - the award for Enumerated bribes for hoisted etc.. Claim. To win Robber, one of the pairs to win the two games, ie twice to score at least 100 points below the line. After each game points "below the line" are "above the line" and have to retype.
The couple won the game, is "in the zone of vulnerability" to the end of Rober (usually say, just in the zone). This increases the penalties for hoisted Prize for helmets (see. Below). The prize for winning Rober is 500 points if the opponents have won one game and 700 points, if you do not win a single game.
The contract is considered to be played, if the point guard scored no less than the ordered number of bribes. Achievement played a contract depends on the suit of the contract: clubs and diamonds are considered to be minor suit (minors, 20 points for a bribe), worms, and peak - senior (majors, 30 points for a bribe); first bribe in notrump contract is worth 40 points, the other 30 points.
Achievement ordered bribes written below the line, if the pair scored more bribes, the premium for the extra ("overa") - on the line. For example, if the contract 2NT playmaker scored 9 of bribes, he gets 40 + 30 = 70 points below the line and 30 on the line.
Contracts 3NT, 4 ?, 4 ?, ?, 5 5? and up close the game allow for one change and called geymovymi contracts, lower contract called partial record. For ordered and played contracts for 6 and 7-level (small helmet and a grand slam) are extra bonuses: Small helmet (partners booked and took 12 tricks): Prize to the zone of 500 points, 750 points in the zone. Grand Slam (partners ordered and took all 13 tricks): Prize to the zone of 1000 points, 1500 points in the zone.
If playmaker party failed to gain the quantity ordered bribes whist recording yourself on the line for each gleaning bribe 50 points if declarer had to zone, and 100 points, if in the area.
Contra and redouble.
Played under Rear contract gives 2 times more points below the line than without dissent. In addition, the playmaker couple records themselves above the poverty premium of 50 points "for incorrect dissent." Bribes are ordered more than 100 points to the area and 200 - in the area. For example, two hearts under Rear to the zone with one Overeem will bring 120 points below the line and 50 + 100 points above the line. We note that the dissent in this case has made a partial record in geymovy contract.
When to plant a fine under Rear is:
To the zone - 100 points for the first gleaning a bribe of 200 for the second and third, and 300 for each additional. In the zone - 200 points for the first gleaning a bribe, and 300 for each additional. All of these points are doubled under redoubled. Contra and redouble not affect the amount of premiums for a helmet.
Fines for gleaning bribes even under Rear is not very large. Thus, in the same zoning board without two under Rear to be preferable to give opponents to play the game. Therefore, even with a relatively weak cards often have a sense of protective orders when the couple deliberately going to lose the contract.
As with any card game, bridge, much depends on luck. To equalize the chances of playing in the sports bridge is the same game situation is played by different actors on several tables, and then compares the results. There are two main types of competitions on sports bridge.
Competing two teams, each of which consists of two pairs. In the first table from the first pair sits on command line NS, and the pair of second command - line EW; the second - on the contrary: the pair of the first command on line EW, from the second - on the line NS. All delivery are played on both tables. The difference in the results of each donation is translated into the so-called Imps. Scale imps essentially nonlinear, it is made to one big win does not cut off all the others on the importance of surrender.
Sum imps transferred to VP (victory points) from the table corresponding to the number of donations in the match. In a match usually played 30 VP, but a team can not get more than 25 VP. Examples of the score in the VP: 15-15, 17-13, 21-9, 25-5, 25-3, 25-0. But there is a translation table UTI VP of calculating the 20 VP for the match.
The tournament competing individual pairs, usually in a round robin. Each renting played all pairs, the results are compared. For taking the couple gets 2 points for each pair, which received on the same maps fewer points and one point for each pair, to get the same result. Usually the result is calculated as a percentage: 100% means that the pair scored the most points in this distribution.