Small towns - Russian folk sports game. Knocking sticks with a certain distance from the square, the so-called "city", the five boroughs, that is - cylindrical wogs, in a variety of shapes.
The game has been around for several centuries. The mention of the towns can be found in the documents relating to the history of ancient Russia. The popularity of the game indicates that played it: Peter I and Generalissimo Suvorov, Lenin, Stalin, Kalinin, Voroshilov. In towns played many prominent figures of culture and science. Among them - Academician Pavlov, a geneticist Timofeev Resovskii singer Chaliapin, music critic and composer Stasov, writers Tolstoy and Gorky.
Before there was no uniform rules. As a sport, having uniform rules towns were formed in 1923, when Moscow hosted the first All-Union competition. In 1928, the towns were included in the All-Union Olympiad. In 1933, there were new rules, which have been identified 15 pieces. Particularly popular towns won in the twentieth century. Since 1936 the USSR conducted towns.
Almost all competitions won Muscovites. Honored Master of Sports, the champion of Union Township in team and individual competition Simon Gromov jokingly claimed that in 50 years of championship titles distributed in the train, which was carrying Moscow gorodki the competition. In team battles were the most famous team "Hammer and Sickle" (5 years of the championship), "Spartacus" (5 years of the championship), "Zeal."
According to official statistics, in the 60 - 70 years in the towns of the USSR was about 350 thousand people. Popularity towns began to fall to 80-90 th year. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the number involved in dramatically reduced inventory gorodoshny no longer produced. Since the beginning of the XXI century interest in gorodki began to rise. In particular, held annually Cup European towns.
The essence of the game - throws bits (sticks) to knock out "the city" (hence the name) in turn a certain number of pieces, made up of five boroughs - cylindrical columns of birch, linden, beech. The main task - to spend on knocking out 15 pieces as small as possible throws. Who in the first three rounds using fewer attempts is the winner.
size of the site ("City") - 2 × 2 m; distance from surges: the far ("con") - 13 m, near ("semi con") - 6.5 m; Length towns - 20 cm, diameter of - 4.5-5 cm; length bits - no more than 1 m. knocks figures with the "Law", but if the figure is cleared at least one town, the others are knocked out with "the Half." But the "letter" is beaten only with the "Law." The town is considered to be knocked out if he was completely out of the line or a square mustache. Towns, was rolled out for the front (front) line or a square within the whiskers are considered nevybitymi. "Brand" in the "Letter" is considered to be dislodged if neither she nor the bat has not touched other towns.
Shooting is considered lost if:
bit touched the free lines or ground in front of her; player at the time of the cast came and stood up for the line Law (Half-). All towns in these cases are put on the same place, repeat the kick is not permitted.
Party in the towns consists of 15 pieces:
In this sequence, and knock them. Stud gorodki are personal - between the two athletes, as well as command. Before the meeting, conducted the draw who first come into play. After all gorodki strikes on two bits, the other team starts. After the end of the party the right to start the next gets the other team. Wins the match the team that wins two games in a row.
When a tie is assigned the third bout. At major competitions match usually consists of three parts. The winner is the one who spent the least on the ejection figures the number of bits. To play selected flat area on any surface - on the pavement, on the ground, on the lawn - and is counting on.
In small towns, you can play alone, "one on one" and the team for the team. Each team can have up to 5 players. When the first team to finish their shots (each player in turn can throw only two bits), begins to beat his figures the second team and so on.
Each party can be played from 5 to 15 pieces, the pieces are placed one after another in the order established by playing. In the course of the game can be changed by agreement or specify the conditions and rules of the game, simplifying or complicating it. All figures, except the 15th, built in the middle of the front line.