Modern types of equestrian sport:
Dressage (highest riding school) - the art of managing a horse at different gaits (walk, trot, canter, arcade, pyaffe et al.). Competitions are held at the site of a 20 × 40 or 20 × 60 m program of different difficulty, usually within 5-12 minutes. Based on a 10-point system. At the Olympic Games, World and European championships for Sports of the USSR played the Grand Prize.
Overcoming obstacles (jumping-ippik) - widely cultivated species of equestrian sport., In which each participant has to overcome from 6 to 13 different obstacles located along a certain route (parkurn) length from 200 to 1100 m and the special (show jumping), the field size is not less than 75 × 40 m. several types of jumping competitions: the upper class, hunting, optionally, relay and so on. d.
For errors (fall, the destruction of obstacles, disobedience, and so on. N.) Rider fined by a certain scale. The most difficult competition, included in the program of the Olympic Games, World Championships (held since 1953) and Europe (1952) - Prize of Nations (Nations Cup), in the Soviet Union - the USSR Cup. Overcoming obstacles is included in the competition program in modern pentathlon.
Eventing consists of dressage, field trials and overcome obstacles (for three days in a row rider stands on a horse). Dressage is held in the open air or in an enclosed arena (the size of 20 × 60 m) on the program, including the exercise demonstration on the basic gaits (walk, trot, canter); field tests - at a distance of 23 to 34 km, divided into 4 segments, including traffic on the roads, Steeplechase- and cross; competition, jumping - at distances of 800-1000 m with a height of 13 obstacles of up to 120 cm and a width of the ditch up to 3.5m.
Eventing included in the program of the championships and Sports of the USSR, Europe and the world championships, the Olympic Games. Combined spend on common rules for triathlon with the exception of the field test program.
Horse Racing - Equestrian on rapid passage race at the racetrack or on the flat terrain. Smooth races are usually held on the distances 1200-3200 m (depending on the age of the horses); smooth national races - at longer distances (up to 7 km), the barrier - on the race track length of 2-3 km per kilometer which set light Khvorostyanov obstacles (herdelya) up to 1 m.
Steeplechase- - the most difficult of the race (the distance to 7.6 km, with 18 massive fixed obstacles up to 140 cm and a width of up to 5.5 m). Distance of the hardest in the world Greater Liverpool Steeplechase- (held since 1836 in the UK) - 7200 m with 30 obstacles up to 150 cm. Grand Pardubice Steeplechase- (conducted in 1893 in Czechoslovakia), in which the Soviet athletes were seven-time winner, is the distance 6900 m with 31 barrier height of 150 cm and a width of 6.5 m.
Crosses (cross country races) are held at distances from 3 to 8 km in mandatory or arbitrary routes with fixed obstacles field type of calculation 3 obstacles every kilometer.
Horseback hunting (parforsnaya riding, from the French par force - force) - a kind of field drive, conducted with hounds in the living animal (deer, wolves, wild boar, fox, hare) or on artificial track beast. Distance hunting up to 35 km.
Horse-ski competition on the race track or the racetrack smooth moderately snowy country roads are of two types: the skier lucky horse, control it with the ribbon or belt extending from the breast-bands (scoring); skier lucky horse, rider-driven.
Horse runs at speed.
Horse runs at the speed of (a distance of 25, 50 and 100 km, the route is laid on a highway or country roads) or endurance (daily, multi-day long distance).
Vaulting and fancy riding.
The competition and the Vaulting Jighitovka (mandatory or arbitrary program) athletes perform gymnastic exercises; Vaulting (tremors peremahi, dismounts, stops, scissors, racks and so on. n.) - by moving in a circle at a trot or gallop horses; dzhigitovka (tremors peremahi riding standing, turntable, lifting off the ground, and so on various subjects. n.) - a direct path length of 200 m at a speed of a horse 400 m / min. National kinds of trick riding in the USSR are most common in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Georgia.
Pushball and polo.
Among the most famous equestrian games pushball and polo. Pushball - two teams of 6-8 riders on the field size of 150? 300 m or 200? 400 m playing ball with a diameter of 130? 150 cm, trying to hammer it into the opponent's goal. Polo - the game, widespread in Western Europe and America. Played by two teams of 4 people. Riders seek special sticks to score in the opponent's goal wooden ball (diameter 10-12 cm). Normal size field 150? 300 m. Game is divided into six periods of 15 min. Play polo on a specially vyezzhennyh riding (growth 160-162 cm), vol. N. polo ponies. Polo repeatedly included in the program of the Olympic Games.
The history of equestrian sport.
The first mention of the participation of horse chariots in the Olympic Games belongs to the 680 BC. e .; the first message for inclusion in the Olympic program for racing horses and mules - to 648 BC. e. Special Riding School appeared in the early 16th century. in Italy, France, Spain, Austria.
In pre-revolutionary Russia since ancient times have been developed national horse games and horse racing - Central Asia, the Caucasus, North Caucasus, as well as the areas inhabited by the Cossacks (Don, Kuban, Ural, Terek). First horse tournaments (European-style) held in St. Petersburg in 1766 Horse Racing, having the character of official competitions have been held in Russia since 1826.
In the 2nd half of the 19th century. very popular among the court nobles and officers enjoyed chetyrёhvёrstnaya mile steeplechase - Russian Steeplechase- (for the first time in 1872 in the Red Village). The first Russian sports victories riders on the international stage - K. Avalov Liverpool win Steeplechase- (UK, 1912) and winning three team Russian cavalry officers' Gold Cup King Edward "in the competition, jumping (London, 1911-13).