Table Tennis, sometimes called ping pong - one of the most popular sports in the world. The game consists of throwing the ball in the racket so that it hits a certain way on a gaming table.
The game is played on a table size of 2.74 meters (9 feet) to 1,525 meters (5 feet). Table height - 76 cm (30 inches). Table usually made of particle board or similar material and is painted in green, dark blue or black. By the middle of the table is a grid height of 15.2 cm (6 inches). When used game racquets made of wood, coated with one or two layers of special rubber on each side. Table tennis ball made of tsellyuloida. Ball size - 40 mm in diameter, weight - 2.7 g
The ball must be orange or white. The game is played between two players or between two teams of two players. All the rally ends with the award of one point to one or another player (team). According to modern international rules established in 2001, every game is 11 points, although the game to 21 points is still popular in lay level. The match consists of an odd number of games (usually five or seven).
Bats there are no restrictions on the size and shape, but the rules requiring that "working surface" remained tight and flat, with a wooden core, equal to 85% of their thickness, ensure that they are small in size. Specification for rubber surfaces rackets extremely specific.
Players are allowed to use pupyrchatuyu or layered rubber, although pupyrchatoy rubber sheets should not be thicker than 2 mm, and a sandwich - no thicker than 4 mm. Certain types of glue, allowing to increase the velocity of the ball, prohibited by the Olympic competitions. During the match, and in those cases when the players change rackets during a match, they should allow their opponents and the referee to check their racquets.
The format of the competition.
And in single and doubles competition, the selection is done by sifting losing one. Players selected in the draw (16 in singles competition, eight in doubles) go directly to the main qualifying contest, while the other first compete in groups of three, one of which passed the selection. The results of these group events have 16 players will participate in the single competitions and eight doubles teams.
Now no one can say who, when and where was the first to play table tennis. Most experts believe that table tennis appeared in England, as a kind of Royal Tennis. In the XVI century in England and France, there was a fun game without certain rules. Preserved drawings, on which you can see the game long ago when playing rackets with strings similar to those currently adopted in the usual, so-called, big tennis.
It is possible that table tennis originated in the United States, India or South Africa (it is assumed that in the latter two countries, table tennis started playing there seconded British officers).
Pretty soon the game with an open air passed into the room - played on the floor. Later povilas game on the tables located at some distance from one another. More time passed, and the two halves of the table were shifted between them stretched mesh. Simple tools, and most importantly the small size of the site allowed to play anywhere. Table tennis became popular.
There were no specific rules. Balls were made of filaments; books, placed on the table were a grid; and pieces of cardboard were rackets. Quite a long time the game was used not as a sport, but only as a means of leisure and recreation.
In the late eighties of the XIX century, the game has become popular largely because of the competition among manufacturers of equipment, which has helped to improve the rackets and balls. Their main producer was the American factory Parker Brothers, Massachusetts. This factory produced and exported to England for all the games in the "Tennis for Improvement." However, British companies such as Ayres Ltd. (They advertised the sport as a "miniature game of lawn tennis in the premises"), got their own patents.
In the XIX century it appeared in Russia. In 1860, in St. Petersburg opened club "Cricket and lawn tennis", but still there were favorite games: shuttlecock, rounders, and tambourine. Play the tambourine, or, as it is called, "Jeu de Paume" (with rackets round shape without handles), to a certain extent can be considered the forerunner of table tennis.
The balls were made of rubber or cork, are often sewn into the fabric. Bats have not been standardized (by the way, is still a racket producing different shapes, sizes and materials). Undoubtedly, a major improvement was a hollow ball. Here's a version of its occurrence:
In 1900, a player named James Gibb in America came across the little hollow colored balls - toys. On his return to England, he tried a similar hollow ball on the table, and found that it has a huge advantage over solid. Interesting was the form of the participants. Strict evening: women - long dresses; men - in tuxedos.
Gradually began to change the shape of the racquet. There are plywood, weight diminished nearly tripled. Shortened handle caused a renewed hold the racket (determined before the new grip, as we say today). Have been used and new materials for pasting the playing surface: parchment, leather, suede and others. Rackets author of such modifications can be regarded as an Englishman E. Hood.
Due to rapid flourishing industry, the emergence of new materials, finding its application in sports, sports equipment changed. And this, in turn, could not but have a direct impact on the technique and tactics of the game. And changed the rules of the game. Particularly noticeable boost to tennis gave the appearance of a porous, sponge rubber (sponge), which began to be used as an overlay on the racket. Before the game was very close to the table, flat strokes.
With the advent of sponge (1930), the game has become more diverse. This is understandable due to the tight coupling of the racket with the ball has become possible to give him a strong rotation. Changed the trajectory of the ball, opened the opportunity to play an active and when he had dipped below the grid. Athletes playing in a protective style, now have far to move away from the table and return to it quickly. The game became more dynamic.
Made a lot of value in the technique and tactics of tennis five-time world champion (1930-1935 gg.) Englishman Victor Barna. Thanks to him, the game was fun, exciting spectacle. Interest of spectators to the competition has grown significantly. Suffice it to say that the competition for the world championship in London in 1935 were observed daily to 10 thousand people. The game became alive with fast movements, rapid roll, sharp single and serial attacks. As a result, in 1936 Congress ITTF decided to change the name of the game. Instead of the old name ping pong table tennis appeared.
So, to replace the first period is characterized by simplicity of technical elements, based on long-term perekidke ball, came second - during offensive play, a multi-faceted by means of attack and defense. But as the strongest at that time still remained protective style players, in order to win a point sometimes required a lot of time. However, the major change in the rules of the game can be considered a reduction in the height of the grid (from 17 to 15.25 inches), and the establishment of well-defined height of the playing surface - 76 inches off the floor. It was also prohibited when applying to tighten the ball with your fingers.
All of these changes give significant advantages attack. Naturally, there were players of the new plan, such as I. Andriadis, Shtipik, Vignanovsky (Czechoslovakia), which might have to attack strikes the average force on the left and the right, to counterplay with interim protection in the middle zone (though without strong final strokes).
In England, a ping-pong as a sport recognized at the beginning of 1900, when it was held the first official competition. England game came to the part of Europe that is now Hungary, then in Germany, Czechoslovakia. In Berlin on Victoria Platz opened a cafe "Ping Pong." A little later, there are places in Vienna, Prague and other European cities. Then in 1901, the official tournament was held in India. It can be considered the first international competition. Won one of the best players of the day Indian athlete Nando.
The name "ping-pong" was registered in 1901 (it has replaced such names as Gossima, Flim-Flam and Whif-Whaf) John Dzhakvesom and sold by Parker Brothers. It came from a combination of two sounds: Ping - sound of the ball when it hits the racket, and Pong - when the ball bounces off the table.
In 1902, EK Hood papered with his racket rubber, which allowed him to tighten the ball. From 1904 to 1921, the popularity of table tennis in Europe and America decreased, largely due to the monopoly of Parker Brothers and John Dzhakvesa on equipment and rules of the game. In 1921, table tennis returns to Europe under the present name. In 1926 he founded the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF).
In 1930, thanks to the appearance of foam rubber, used as a lining on the racket, the game has become more diverse. However, in the 30's still dominated by the players who played in a protective style, which sometimes led to funny. In the world championship match Ehrlich (France) and Paneth (Romania) for 2 hours 10 minutes managed to get to the account ... 1 0 in the first game. In 1934, at the World Cup in Paris was stopped meeting between Hagenauer (France) and Holdenbergom (Romania), which lasted 8 hours.
As a result, in 1936 ITTF limited duration of the party one hour. However, this innovation, it soon became clear, was not enough - the athletes did not have time to readjust. The very next year the final matches of women did not reveal the winner. The reason was disqualified finalists Pritz (Austria) and Arons (USA) for passive game play. You had to fight for its activation and more. And during one of the meeting was reduced to 20 minutes.
Since 1952, with the world championship in Bombay, a new era of table tennis. It is connected with the access to the international arena of Japanese athletes. The Japanese introduced not only a new type of coating and unique racket grip. Itself, but also a system of play was unusual. In essence, they performed one main eliment equipment - reel right, but he was brought up virtuoso precision. And so, almost without using any other attacks, the Japanese convincingly proved their superiority.
What is it expressed? The first - an excellent command of feeds. Feeds directly on the Japanese players in each game won by 4 to 10 points. Second - high physical fitness, allowing rapid move instantly strike. And from this self-confidence, the ability to accurately carry out that plan. In Bombay, the world champion among men was Sato. Men's doubles competition and won the Fuji Hayashi. In the women's doubles competition - Narahari and Nishimura. In total, Japanese athletes took home four first prizes in seven.
In 1953, Japanese tennis players did not participate in the World Championship, and in 1954 in London again distinguished: the team won both prizes - male and female. In the individual competition won Ogimura. From 1954 to 1957, strong resistance to Japanese tennis players appear to be the only representatives of the women's team in Romania. And just in individual competitions during this period was awarded the title of world champions 30 times. 12 times he won tennis players of Japan, 6 - Romania 3 - Hungary 3 - Czechoslovakia, 2 - Yugoslavia 2 - England 2 - USA.
Many of the leading coaches in Europe at the time mistakenly believed that the success of Japanese tennis players - this is a temporary phenomenon, and related serious conclusions did. Yet the style of European athletes began to change. However, most of the players still stuck protective manner, but nevertheless the game is becoming more energetic, inventive. Increases the number of counter-attacking techniques.
But Japanese athletes do not hand over their positions. They again and again emphatically declare themselves. In 1961, the world championship tennis Land of the Rising Sun used a new blow - the so-called top-spin, dubbed "devil ball from Tokyo" Note: Then there were the elements of the "typhoon" in volleyball, "ultra-si" in the gym.
In sports, all vzaimosvzano, and at this stage the development has gone through the complication of the technique, often virtuosic, close to the trick. In this direction, table tennis is developing today. From 1930 to 1951, among the winners of the competition is dominated by representatives of Hungary. Since 1951, the best results show representatives of Asian countries (Japan, Korea, China).
In 1961, at the World Cup, Japanese athletes use a new blow - topspin. In 1988, table tennis became an Olympic sport (Seoul, South Korea). Today more than 40 million players annually take part in official tournaments worldwide.
International Table Tennis Federation.
In the early XX century, table tennis has started to spread rapidly. He became known in Japan, Korea, China, India and South Africa. By 1921, table tennis became popular in Central Europe. In the twenties of the XX century in European countries began to form National Table Tennis Association.
The rapid spread of table tennis has led to the need for an international organization and to establish a level playing field. Thanks to vigorous activity Dr. Georg Lehmann (Germany) in Berlin January 15, 1926 was founded by the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF International Table Tennis Federation). Its chairman was Ivor Montagu - a prominent English writer, progressive public figure.
By December 1926 the constitution and rules were approved by the ITTF. The first congress of ITTF and the first world championship was held in London in December 1927. The contest was attended by athletes of England, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Denmark, Sweden, Wales, India. The fight was in four digits: single - men and women and men - men's and mixed. In 1928 he became involved in the competitions female couples.
Since then, the world championship is held every year, except for the 1940-1946 period. Since 1957, the world championship began to spend time in two years, but in the following year began to play the European Championship. Steel wire and kotinentalnye championships in Asia and Africa. In ITTF registered about 130 countries. World Championships in table tennis held every year since 1926 (except for the 1940-1946 period), and since 1957 have been held every two years. European Championships held since 1958 in the program of the Olympic Games table tennis since 1988.
The game consists of drawings, each of which begins with the filing. First delivery is usually determined by lot. Next batsmen rotated every two feed. In the old 21-point game, each serving filed 5 innings. In case of a tie, 10-10 supply switches to the other player (team) after each drawing as long as the gap does not make two points. When doubles player in the transition flow, took the ball becomes the server, and the partner is the player receiving the ball is fed.
Submission in table tennis takes place according to the following rules: The server must be located outside of the table. The ball must be thrown straight up with an open hand not less than 15 cm. The server must hit the ball so that he struck once in their half, and at least once on the opponent's half. If the ball is caught feeding the grid, but all the rules have been complied with, declared "perepodacha" server shall repeat the pitch. Number perepodach Unlimited. After successful submission of all other strokes should be made so that the ball hits only half the opponent.
Points are awarded an opponent when the player has made one of the following errors: Error when applying (eg ball hit into the net). Incorrect feeding (eg not just settle on the ball 15 cm). The ball hit twice on his side. The ball hit on its side after hitting the racket. The ball was hit twice. Since arm from the wrist to the rules schiat part rackets, if the ball hit on the fingers, and then seeded, it is considered hit twice.
The ball bounced into anything other than the racket after a rebound off the table (such as the floor or in the player). The ball did not hit the side of the opponent after the impact. The ball was recaptured before it hit the table. The table was to move or free hand touched the table.
The following additional rules are used for doubles: The table is divided along the white stripe on the area (two on each side). When serving the ball must hit the right area of the half and the left half of the opponent's zone, in other words, the ball must be served diagonally.
Partners have to touch the ball on the line. For example, after serving served the ball, and the batter it tipped, sdeduschy kick to be made a partner feed and sledushchy receiving partner, and so on. D.