Chess (from Persian. "Shah mat" - the master died) - the game 32 figures (16 - white and black) 64 kpetochnoy board for the two partners. The goal - to checkmate the opponent's king. Birthplace of chess - India. In Russia, chess appeared in 9-10 centuries. In the World Chess federatsiiFIDE (RGOE; founded in 1924) approx. 160 countries (1999).
An ancient game that originated in India and has a long history; combines elements of science, art and sports. Contributes to the development of imagination and concentration, education of character and will, teaches to think logically. Used as a model for research in computer, psychology and pedagogy. Is closely related to its historical development in many areas of culture.
The rules of chess.
Chess game is divided into three stages - opening, middlegame, endgame. Debut - the initial stage of the chess struggle (15-20 moves), is characterized by the mobilization of vulture playing. Openings are open (when the first move of the royal white pawn two squares forward 1 e2 - e4 Black responds with the same 1 e7- e5), including: Ruy Lopez, King's Gambit, the Italian party, etc. .; semi-open (by 1 e2 - e4 Black plays otherwise), the most popular among them - the Sicilian Defense, the French defense, protection of the Caro-Kann, Alekhine defense; closed (when the whites begin to move in any game except 1 e2 - e4) - Queen's Gambit, the debut Reti, English Opening, Nimzo-Indian Defense, King's Indian and Queen's Indian, and others.
Middlegame, or the middle of the game for the next stage debut party, which tend to develop the main events in the chess combat - attack and defense, positional maneuvers, combination and sacrifice.
Ending - the end or final part of the party. One of the most difficult stages igrs in which "wakes up from hibernation" King and increases the value of the pawns; before playing there "terrible threat" - zugzwang (a situation in which the opponent is forced to make an unprofitable, losing move) and time pressure (lack of time allotted to a chess player for the entire game). In the mid-1950s. came the collective labor of the Soviet chess "Chess closure" in 3 volumes, which contained approx. 3 thousand items and their analyzes. 30 years later came the publication already in 5 volumes!
History of chess.
According to the archaeological site - the game associated with the movement of the chips on the board, have been known for centuries 3-4. BC. e. The earliest form of chess - war game Chaturanga - appeared in the first century BC. e. In India, called Chaturanga operation troops, which included chariots (ratha), elephants (hasti), cavalry (asva) and foot soldiers (padati). The game symbolized the battle with four arms, which was directed by the leader. They were located at the corners of the 64-square board kpetochnoy (ashtapady), the game was attended by 4 people.
Movement of pieces determined by throwing dice. Chaturanga existed in India until the early 20th century. and eventually became nazshatsya "chaturradzha" - a game four kings; with figures of steel painted in 4 colors - black, red, yellow and green. Successor was the game Chaturanga shatrang (chatrang), which originated in Central Asia at the end of 5 - early centuries b. Had two "camps" of figures and a new figure showing an advisor to King - Farzin; played by two opponents. The goal - to checkmate the opponent's king.
So the "game of chance" has replaced the "mind game." In the 8-9 centuries. shatrant spread from Asia to the East Tsentrapnoy and 3apad, where he became known by the Arabic name shatranj. In shatranj (9-15 cc.) Preserved terminology and placement of figures shatranga, but changed the look of the figures. In view of the prohibition of images of living Islam, the Arabs used the miniature abstract figure in the form of small cylinders and cones, which simplifies production, contributed to the spread of the game.
Shatranj strongest players along with the Arabs - Al-A length etc.. - Were immigrants from Central Asia - Abu Naim al Khadim, al-Razi, al-Soupy, al-Ladzhladzh Abu - ^ - Fatah and others. Among the patrons of the game were known caliphs Harun al-Rashid, al-Amin, anb-Mamun et al. game developed slowly, so as soon as the rook, the king and the horse went on to modern rules, the range of the same actions of other figures was very limited. For example, the queen moved only one square diagonally.
Thanks to the abstract shapes game gradually ceased to be perceived by the people as a symbol of military battles and more associated with the everyday ups and downs, as reflected in the epics and treatises on the sacred game of chess (Omar Khayyam, Saadi, Nizami).
In the early Middle Ages shatranj penetrated into Europe - Spain, Italy, and later in England, Germany and France. In Byzantium, in Russia, in Bulgaria, the game has become known around the 10-12 centuries. With the Arab period is associated with the appearance so nazshaemoy descriptive notation, which was made possible thanks to the recording played.
Despite fierce opposition initially Muslim and then Christian church that equates chess gambling dice and considers them "demonic obsession," chess is gradually becoming one of the popular games are not only among the feudal nobility, but also the people. In the 14-15 centuries. eastern tradition of chess in Europe have been lost, and in the 15-16 centuries. became apparent departure from them after a number of changes to the rules of moves pawns, bishops and queen.