Checkers - a game for two partners in the multicellular, usually square board (cell field alternately painted in dark and light colors) special, usually round chips-checkers; plays like chess action fighting forces according to certain rules.
Initial information on the drafts are in the monuments of Ancient Egypt; peoples who inhabited the territory of the USSR, checkers were known in the III century. There are different in the number of cells, checkers on the board and the rules of the game types. The best known are Russian, English, German, Spanish Checkers (12 checkers on the 64-cell board), French, Polish (20 100-cell), Canadian (30 to 144-cell).
In the XIX century were held at the national championships checkers (in Russia since 1896, and the first permanent champion S. Vorontsov, who are winners of AI and VI Shoshin, N. Cook and others.), Many 100 countries have proliferated cell French checkers, who later became international.
The World Federation of Draughts (FMJD, founded in 1947) is more than 40 countries (1999). World Olympiad International drafts held since 1986 .; World Championships - since 1984 (international checkers).
Board used 8 × 8 cells. Every player in the starting position for the 12 chips - so-called "simple" pieces that take up the first three rows on each side. During the game, checkers move on the dark squares, they can only get up to unoccupied field. "Simple" piece can move diagonally forward one square and beating back and forth (the checker moves diagonally two squares jumping over the opponent man or a king, which is removed from the board, and if the new position of beating checkers can beat another bomb opponent's turn continues, and so on. d.).
Upon reaching the field of conversion (any field of the last row) or fight through the field of transformation "simple" sword turns into Kings and continues to fight for the rules of Kings (now she can go to any number of fields diagonally in any direction). Player on your course obliged to beat bomb the enemy, if he has the opportunity (if under attack, two or more pieces of the enemy, the player selects one of the possible moves to fight.) Pass the course is not permitted. The goal - to eat or "lock up" (make it impossible to move) all opponent's checkers.
In recent years, competition in Russian drafts are held in two ways: the classic Russian checkers, and so on. N. tournaments with selective lot. The second option involves the presence of an approved list of the initial two or three moves (there is also a version of the "volatile" checkers, in which at the beginning of the party one man each side takes any other position).
The game is most popular in Europe. Used board 10 × 10 cells. Every player in the starting position of 20 pieces, which occupy the first four rows on each side, "simple" can beat back and forth, Kings can go to any number of fields, when fighting a "simple" transformation through the field, it does not turn into Kings, and continues to fight as simple. Beat relies maximum possible number of pieces. The goal of the game, as well as in Russian checkers - eat or lock all opponent's checkers.
English or American Checkers or Checkers (English. Checkers). Board 8 × 8, in the initial position each player in 12 pieces, located in the first three rows of black squares. Make the first move black. "Simple" checkers can move diagonally one square forward and beat only forward, A king can move one square diagonally forward and back and beat through one square in any direction. Beat is mandatory if there are several ways a player can choose any, not necessarily the longest, but to pass it through.
The rules of the giveaway (here, there are also options 8-8 and 10-10) are similar to the rules of the relevant international and Russian Checkers, but the goal of the game - or to succumb to lock all your checkers
Rules similar to the rules in Russian Checkers, but the initial setup - other (large diagonal free, above and to the left of it, all the cells occupied by black checkers, bottom, and right - white).
Terms closest to international drafts. The difference lies in the fact that hit checker is removed immediately after the jump, without waiting for the end of the course. So sometimes for kings there are additional steps.