American football - a team sport with a ball. The goal - to advance the ball towards the spectacle of the zone on the opponent side of the field (end zone) and earn points. The ball can be carried in the hands, throw and pass to teammates. Points can be earned in many ways, including skid ball in the points zone, successfully pass the ball in the points zone or a goal scored between the goal post (over the bar). The winner of the game is the team with the most points at the expiration of the allotted time.
Soccer became an independent sport at the end of the XIX century. There are several other varieties of American Football - Canadian soccer and indoor football (Arena Football). Since the 60s American football is the most popular sport in the United States. National Football League (National Football League) (NFL) - the only professional American Football League. NFL Super Bowl championship final (Superbowl) annual look nearly half of Americans, and residents of 150 other countries. NFL also manages the European League NFL Europe, consisting of 6 teams.
Goal of the game - to score more points than the opposing team in the allotted time.
Field and the players.
The game is played on a rectangular field 120 yards (110 meters) long and 53 1/3 yards (49 meters) wide. At each end of the field, about 100 yards from each other made the goal line (goal lines). 10-yard spectacle zone (end zone) is located between the line and the edge of a field goal. Across the field every 5 yards marked line. They are numbered from 5 to 50 from each goal line.
At each end of the field on the boundary of the field are the gates in the form of two high bars with a cross between them. Goals are scored between the bars and over the crossbar. Each team can produce on the field 11 players simultaneously. Teams can replace all or some of the players through the game moments. Usually players to play only specialize in attack, defense or special teams (in the moments when the ball knock down). Every game is almost all 53 NFL teams player can participate in the game in one role or another.
The duration of the game.
The game continues 4 periods of 15 minutes each with a break after the second period. Each period is called "quarter."
Promotion of the ball.
The game consists of gaming moments. At the beginning of each ball is put in place (on the same line), which ended the previous game time. Team with the ball gets 4 attempts to advance the ball 10 yards forward in the direction of the spectacle of the opponent. If the attacking team advances to 10 yards, it gets another 4 attempts to go 10 yards. If an attack can not go 10 yards in 4 attempts, the ball is passed to the opposing team.
Except at the beginning of the game and the second half, and after drawings of points earned, the ball is served to the game backward pass between his legs, called SNEP (snap). At the beginning of the game moment both teams are arranged opposite each other along a line on which the ball lies. Central player gives the ball back between his legs to the player of their team, usually the main player of the team - the quarterback.
Players can advance the ball in two ways:
Run with the ball in his hands, and you can give the ball to his team. Throwing (grazing) the ball. Only one forward pass is allowed per game time. Number of passes across the field or back is not limited. Game time is over when one of the following events:
Player with the ball fell to the ground. Passing forward off the field or touches the ground before he was caught. The player with the ball goes out of bounds. One team earns points. Registered violation (only some violations stop game time, and the rest shall be punished after it).
The team earns points in the following ways:
Touchdown (touchdown) - 6 points. Touchdown is earned when a player with the ball runs into the points zone or the opponent gets a pass in the end zone while the opponent. The team earned a touchdown can earn an additional one more point, scoring a goal, or 2 points, making one more touchdown. The ball is placed at the same time in 3 yards from the points. Goal - 3 points. Goal scored during the game (not after a touchdown) in the opponent's gate (between the bars over the bar)
A safety (Safety) - 2 points. Earned protection when the player attacks stopped with the ball in his own end zone, or an attacking player left the field with the ball, being in his end zone.
Kicking the ball.
Each half of the game begins at the moment when one of the teams kick the ball towards the spectacle of the opponent. The opposing team while trying to catch the ball and get it back as close as possible to the end zone to beat out the team. Attacking team who were not able to go for 3 attempts 10 yards, usually kick the ball towards the opponent, trying to force the opposing team to attack as far away from the points.
Various violations are punishable by moving the ball in one direction or another. In this case, the offensive team may have a new series of 4 attempts.
Offensive team. Attacking team called team possession of the ball and the budding rally. The attacking team has a quarterback (English. Quarterback), laynmenov (English. Linemen), the Bolsheviks (English. Backs and receivers (English. Receivers). Laynmenov main function - to block the defending players. Laynmeny line up the attack. Attacking line includes the following players:
Center (C) (center) - a major player line resets the ball back quarterback at the beginning of the drawing and blocks the defending players. Forward Guard (NG) (offensive guard) - one of the two players to the left and right of center. Their mission also includes blocking protection. Forward Takla (NT) (offensive tackle) - are located on both sides of the attackers Garden. Block the defending players.
Tight end (TE) (tight end) - tight-ends playing side of the Taklamakan. Tight end, unlike other laynmenov can take the ball, so it performs blocking and receiving role, depending on the type of drawing. Becky and receivers generally advance the ball in front. Becky basically get the ball directly from the quarterback. Receivers usually take forward passes.
Receiver (R) (wide receiver) - the main task of the receiver is receiving a pass from quarterback. The receiver should have a good speed and the ability to catch the ball in difficult situations. Receivers are usually placed at the far edge of the line of attack.
Fullbek (FB) (fullback) - a player who is behind the attack line (behind the quarterback). He can block, run with the ball, catching short passes. During the running jokes often in his main task is to "clearing of the road" tailback.
tailback (TB) (tailback) - player who is behind all the attacking players, whose task is Bringing the ball forward during the running jokes. Tailback should be able to hold fast to the ball, to find gaps in the defense and try to run through them, deceiving Finta enemy players.
The main attacking player - quarterback (CAB) (quarterback)) is directly behind the center and takes the ball from him at the beginning of the rally. Quarterback - think-tank team. He decides what type of draw will carry a team gives passes, passes the ball to players running jokes and, sometimes, he promotes the ball forward.
The offensive team is trying to use their strengths to advance the ball forward. Team with strong lords may prefer to move the ball along the ground. Team with strong receivers and quarterback will be many fold. Usually the attacking team tries to change the types of drawings to keep the opposing team to predict the type of drawing and prepare for it. Depending on the situation, the offensive team uses a variety of initial placement.
Some initial arrangement more suitable for running games, some games for a pass. Team can produce more receivers on the field, if you want to advance the ball a great distance at any cost, or more "heavy" laynmenov if you want to advance the ball a short distance, for example to make a touchdown in the vicinity of the points. The only limitation - the requirement to have at least 7 players on the offensive line.
The defending team.
The defending team - a team that at the beginning of the draw is not holding the ball. Unlike the offensive team the defending team is not limited to the rules in the arrangement of players on the field. The only limitation - all players must be on their side of the line on which the ball to the beginning of the drawing. However, most of the commands include line of defense consisting of protective Takla and endov, laynbekerov behind you, and protective Beks - kornerbekov and a safety.
Protective endings (GE) (defensive ends) - two players standing on the edges of the defensive line. Their mission - to try to get to the passer and stop the player with the ball, trying to carry the ball on the edges. Faster End is usually placed on the right to be in the blind spot, right-handed quarterback. Protective Takla (ST) (defensive tackles) - players who are between endami. Their mission is to attack the quarterback and prevent breakouts with the ball in the middle.
Laynbekery (LB) (linebackers) - players are placed behind the line of defense. Laynbekery - key defensive players, they perform a variety of functions depending on the situation. The task laynbekera may include an attack on the quarterback, cover receivers, the attacking player running with the ball. Central laynbekera sometimes called "quarterback protection." It is tasked with solving a plan of the enemy and choosing the right placement of the defending players.
Kornerbeki (BER) (cornenrbacks) - players, covering receivers, trying to fight off or intercept the ball. If the offensive team has chosen a running joke, kornerbek attacking player with the ball.
Open a safety (OS) (free safety) and strong a safety (SS) (strong safety)) - the player places behind the rest of the defending players. They help kornerbekam cover receivers, especially during long-range attempts to pass.
Special teams are called the players coming on the field when the ball is knocked out feet - during the initial drawing during the fourth attempt, when the attacking team knocks the ball, during attempts to score a goal or earn an extra point after a touchdown. Most special teams players - replacement players for other positions of attack or defense.
Special players playing in special teams:
Kicker (placekicker) - player knocks the ball during the initial drawings and trying to score a goal.
Holder (holder) - player, whose task is to take the ball, put it on the ground and hold it for a kicker. Holder usually located 7-8 yards from the line on which the ball. Often acts as a reserve quarterback Holder or panthers.
Panthers (punter) - a player hit the ball with the hands, in a situation where the ball should be given to the opposing team, but as far as possible from their end zone (usually during the 4th attempt)
Return (kick returner and punt returner) - the players on the receiving team, catching and tries to carry the ball as far as possible.