Sports - Baseball.

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  • Baseball.


    Sports - Baseball

    Baseball (English. Baseball, from the base - the base, the base and the ball - the ball) - a team sports game with a ball and bat. In the competition involves two teams of 9-10 (North American baseball) players each.

    Baseball came to the United States at the beginning of the XIX century. It is believed that the game served as the basis for the English game "raunders." The first official match was held in 1820 in New York. In 1845 he created the first professional club. The game is distributed in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Latin America, Australia, and Japan. Currently in baseball is played in more than 120 countries worldwide.

    The most popular baseball in America, Cuba, Japan, China, Korea and Europe. In the United States, Japan, the Czech Republic and other countries also distributed softball - a simplified version of baseball - a game that can be done indoors and in small fields. To baseball related sports include cricket, pesapolo in Finland, Romania and oyna rounders in Russia.


    In each game involving two teams who take turns playing offense and defense. The goal - to get more points / runs (English. Run), than the opposing team. A point is scored when a player team, playing in the attack, in turn runs all the bases (square (30cm x 30cm) pad attached to the ground) at the corners of a square with sides of 90 feet (27.4 meters).

    In baseball is usually played by a white ball the size of a fist with red stitches. Each team plays 9 or 10 players. The angles of the game "square" is called counter-clockwise "house", 1st base, 2nd base and 3rd base.

    At the beginning of the game, one team (usually the home team) plays defense. 9 players on the team, playing in defense out on the field and try not to give the other team to score points. Guest team first played in the attack and tries to score points. Points are earned as follows: starting with "home" each attacking player tries to earn the right to run counter-clockwise until the next base (corner of the square) and, having reached, to touch base, while continuing to run to each base you next and finally return to the "home" while earning points.

    Before attacking player may start to run, a player of the defending team, called the "pitcher" (from the English pitch - feed), stands in a designated location in the middle of the game square. The remaining 8 players of the defending team are also in the field, each in their own position.

    A player playing in the attack, called "beating" gets close to "home", holding a circular cross-sectional bit, usually made of wood or aluminum. The batter waits for the pitcher to throw the ball in the direction of "home." The pitcher throws the ball towards the "home" and the striker tries to hit him. If the batter was able to hit the ball in the field, he has to throw the bat and begin running toward 1st base. (There are other ways to reach first base).

    When the batter starts to run, he is called "running". If running reached base, he declared "safe» (safe), otherwise the referee announces "out» (out). If a player was "a miss" he must leave the field and stay on the bench (English: dugout). There are many ways in which the defending team can bring an offensive player out of bounds. For simplicity are the five most popular ways:

    Strike out: striker could not earn the right to run to first base. Pitcher successfully prevented attempts hitter to hit the ball (usually beating 3 times missed). Ground-out: striker hit the ball in the box, but the defensive player picked up the ball and threw it to the player standing on 1st base before the batter had to touch her.

    Force-out: the player attacks had to run to the base (by the rules), but a defensive player got to the base with the ball in his hand before he had a chance to do it. Ground-out - one of many force-out. Fly-out: defensive player caught a batted ball before the ball touched the ground. "Tag-Out '(osalivanie): a defensive player touched the ball running attacking team when running was between databases.

    Each game is divided into periods - "innings", each of which each team plays once in attack and defense. Each time three players attacking team went into touch, the teams change places (thus, in each inning with six strikeouts - three for each team). Usually, the game consists of 9 innings. In case of a tie at the end of the last inning appointed extra innings.

    Submission and hitting the ball.

    The basis of a baseball pitcher is a confrontation and hitter. The batter has to decide whether he should beat the pitcher the ball or not. The ball is fed at high speed, and reliever often tries to disguise the type of feed and feed the ball so that it was very difficult to fight off, so the decision diverted fraction of a second.

    Beating study habits pitcher, trying to predict the type of flow, it is often the only way to hit the ball, served a good pitcher. Pitchers learn the strengths and weaknesses of the hitters, trying to apply just such a supply, which are difficult to recapture a particular batter.

    Each output of the striker to the house consists of a series of innings. Every pitcher throws a pitch in the side of the house, with the striker must be in the area for the striker. If the striker waved his bat and hit the ball, he scored a strike (English. Strike). If the striker has not waved his bat, the judge standing behind the catcher determines whether the ball flew over the house at the height of the batter's knees to the chest, in the so-called zone of the strike, in this case, too, scored a strike. Otherwise, the ball is counted (English. Ball).

    If the batter misses the ball, but the ball misses the field, the fowl-ball count (English. Foul ball). Foul-ball is also considered a strike, except for the case when the balance hitter already has two strikes, in which case the expense Bolov strikes and does not change.

    If the striker is gaining three strikes - it's called a strike-out - beating out of the game. In the case of the four Bolov clubbing automatically takes first base. This situation is called Walk (English. Walk). Clubbing automatically takes first base as if the supply fell into it.

    Running between bases.

    The striker who has received the right to run, called running. Each runner is on one of the bases and tries to take sledushchuju base. At each base can be only one attacking player. Thus a maximum of 4 player attacks may be on the field at the same time - one batter and one for each base.

    Player concerning base, can not be shipped out. Thus, the players try to get ahead and get protection until the next base. Players can run between the bases at any time. If the ball touches the ground after hitting the batter's box, the attacking player has to run on the next base if he will be replaced by another player. Kick, which flew the entire field and taking off beyond it, is called a home run (English. Home run). Such an attack allows the batter to score points and all the running.

    Players can try to run the bases on the next base at the time of submission - to steal a base, but they risk being taken by surprise pitcher Rushing the ball to his team standing at the base, or be entrapment catcher throwing the ball on that basis, they are trying to steal. If the batter hit the ball so that it caught the entry of running must return to their base and touch them again.

    Playing field.

    Field for the game of baseball. Baseball field takes on an area of ​​about one hectare (area junior one-third less). Layout field based on the bases, which outline a square or "infield" (internal field) with a base in a home-based (near which stands the striker to reflect the pitcher throws).

    A - home base
    B - first base
    B - second base
    G - third base
    D - pitcherskaya slide
    E - Area catcher
    F - line fowl
    B - field fence
    And - for a clubbing zone
    K - Area coach first base
    A - Area coach third base
    M - zone for a workout the next hitter

    Square has grass, except corridors between databases, special elevation for a pitcher (pitcherskoy slides) and a small area of ​​the home base for the "catcher" (defensive player, receiving feed catcher). Pitcherskaya Hill is located in the center of the square and is raised by 45 cm (for the junior competitions at 25 cm) above the general level of the field. At the top of the hill is fixed plate of bleached hard rubber, which reliever should touch his foot while performing the throw home batter.

    Home base or "home" - a pentagon bleached rubber, which has the shape of a pentagon, only two of its sides form a wedge. The house is situated so that the wedge pointing at the catcher. Large side of the rectangle facing the pitcher. first, second and third bases are white squares of soft material, trimmed canvas and attached to the ground with metal pegs.

    The boundaries of the playing field are white lines of ground chalk, going from home to first and third bases, and on to the fence of the field. These lines are called lines of "fowl" as the grounds outside of these lines is also called "fowl". Gaming is the territory called "fer". Stadiums designed for competition among adult teams, length of lines fowl must be at least 75 m, but can exceed 100 m (on site for juniors - not less than 50 m). Distance to the fence of the field in the middle of the field must be greater than the lines fowl.

    Part of the field between the square and the fence is called "outfield" (far field), but the square and outfield otdelyabtsya no special markings and movement between them is not limited to the protection of the players. Outfield has grass cover.

    On both sides of the house are rectangular areas for hitters (for lefties and righties). The lines of fowl five meters away from the first and third bases are rectangular areas for coaches offensive team, whose task is to guide the promotion of players attack the bases. At a distance of 12 m from the house near the benches of both teams are located around the area for razminiki next hitter.


    Pitcher - defensive player serving the ball. Catcher - the player who is behind the house, taking the ball pitcher. Shortstop - player who is between the 2nd and 3rd base. Out - the situation (or command judge), indicating that an attacking player in this period (inning) out of the game.



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