Rugby - Sports team play with an oval ball that the players of each team, passing each other arms and legs, trying to land a record-field behind the goal or the goal of his opponent in the H-shaped gate.
More common and popular form of rugby is known as rugby union (in Russia it is usually called simply rugby). Second known its kind - rugby league. This article is dedicated to rugby union.
The most common is the kind of rugby, in which competing teams of 15 people. There are also competitions in rugby-7, with slightly different rules. Nevertheless, the management competition rugby-7 is also carried out by the International Rugby Union (IRB). Less konktaktnye variety Rugby - Touch rugby and tag rugby.
The essence of the game.
Games will be played on a rectangular grass field no larger than 144 × 70 m and is in two halves of 40 minutes (and possibly extra time, but its length can vary depending on the tournament). The game can be completed only when the ball is out of play (unlike football, where the game can stop the judge). Along the edges of the field are the gate, consisting of two high poles connected by a horizontal beam. Furthermore the center line of the match carried out transverse lines 10 and 22 m from the center.
Players pass each other oval ball, trying to bring it as close as possible to the end zone. If a player of the attacking team puts the ball into the end zone and concerns of their land, his team gets 5 points (attempt or skid; Engl. Try) and the right to an extra punch, which is to be made from any point opposite the place where the attempt was made to (implementation; Engl. conversion).
Points can also earn by scoring the ball in from the free kick, or a special way after the kick in the game (a drop-goal, Eng. Drop goal). The ball can be thrown a teammate (pass), but only back "from the opponents' goal." Foot ball, you can send and forward.
Although rugby seems rude sport, in reality there are very much appreciated gentlemanly and principles of fair play (fair play). Terms of rugby is very tough. An important difference between Russian and English use in Russia "a lock" is often referred to as the player № 15. In English it is called a fullback, but the lock (literally - the castle) - is the name of the second forwards the line of scrimmage.
It is also interesting that in rugby forwards - it's powerful, but not very fast players who are responsible for the power play, including in the defense, and the pressure to move forward. For fast-break answer is usually three-quarter (in English backs).
Points of rugby can be dialed as follows: Trying to (5 points) - the player of the attacking team puts the ball into the end zone, located between the front line of the field and the goal line, and relates them to the ground. Implementation (2 points) - any player of the team, made an attempt (usually the player the best ball striker) sets the ball at any point in front of the place where an attempt was made, and an effort on goal.
If it falls (ie the ball flies over the crossbar and between the vertical poles, even though above them), the attempt shall be implemented. Opponent must be in its end zone. The free-kick (3 points) - for some violation of the rules (See below.) The judge shall appoint a penalty. If the team with the right to do, decides to break it, the ball is placed at the point where the offense occurred, and one of the players has an effort on goal.
Drop-goal (3 points) - any player when the ball is in play, has the right to strike at goal. To do this, he must drop the ball, and when he touches the ground, hit it (shots on goal with it is prohibited). In principle, such attacks (English. Drop kicks) can be done in the implementation of and penetration penalty, but usually in these cases they are not used.
Of the game.
The game begins with the draw. The team that wins it has the first right to hit the ball either abandon in exchange for the right to choose the direction in which it will play in the first half. Usually this option play a role such factors as the position of the sun, wind strength and direction.
The game starts drop an impact or a bounce (ie. E. Kick in which a player drops the ball and kicks it, after he touches the ground) to the opponent. The ball must move into the interior of the field for at least 10 meters.
The player with the ball has the right to run with it in any direction to beat on it or pass the ball to teammates (but only backwards). If the player is stopped by capturing c (English. Tackle) and fall to the ground, he must immediately release the ball (as long as it did not fall, he may give it to another player). The player who committed the seizure should also release the opponent and not allowed to enter the game until it gets on its feet.
The first player, who had to run to the ball, tempered tackled player can take him: but usually two players are on the ball at the same time. Then they stand facing each other and try to knock the ball kicked back, someone from the players of his team (this is called a cancer, from the English. Ruck). Other players can be connected to cancer: do they have to approach it from behind, from the side of the gate, and must hugging the trunk of one of their players already involved in cancer.
In cancer can not take the ball hands, stomp lying player, returned to the cancer ball, already came out of it, intentionally fall to the ground. Usually for cancer is scrum hav (midfielder grip), eager to catch the ball after the release of cancer.
If the player with the ball has not fallen, and was arrested, and at the same time with him tied (ie,. E. Hugging his hand on the trunk), the other player of his team, and one or more players from the opponent (while also being connected to each other) are trying to push their ago, supposedly formed. As in the case of cancer, the breakwater can be attached to the rear only. In the mall can not block the ball (although the player with the ball has the right to fall to the ground, releasing the ball), rough play is prohibited. You can not deliberately destroy the mole. Mole is considered complete if the player with the ball has left it, if they say went over the goal line, or if they say stop for more than five seconds.
While in the 22-meter zone of the enemy is very effective (although complicated by) tactics "rolling maul": the ball is passed from hand to hand the players of the attacking team, and the winger runs back in the direction of changing the direction of the mall.
If the ball leaves the game through the lateral line (ie. E. Goes outside the field or in the hands of the player who is behind them (unlike football, rugby player standing on the sideline, is also considered pokinuyshim bounds)) can be make a quick throw-in (from any point between the line where the ball left the field, and the line of the gate, exactly perpendicular to the sideline so that the ball touched the ground no closer than 5 m from it), or throw into the corridor. In this case, both teams lined up in a line perpendicular to the side. Player of the attacking Komad throws the ball between them, and usually one of the players pick up, up, so he tried to catch the ball.
The ball in play by the team previously owned the ball (unless he went out of bounds with a penalty kick). Corridor appointed opposite the place where the ball is out of play. However, if a player of the attacking team, being in ONET opponent sent the ball forward with his foot, and he went over the side line, not touching the ground, appointed corridor opposite the place from which was impacted.
France team (in blue) throws the ball into the corridor.
If the attacking team after hitting the ball flies out of bounds from the end zone or a defensive player touches the ball to the ground in his end zone, a free-kick (drop an) with the 22-meter line. If a player, while in his record-or 22-meter zone, catching the ball after a kick to the opposing team, he has the right to shout "Mark!» (Mark!). Play is stopped, and a free-kick.
After some violations and stops in the game scrum (scrum). To do this, each team creates three lines (in English pack), lined up opposite each other. The front row consists of the left and right columns (prop), a kind of "holding up" a fight, and the hooker, or recoup (hooker), whose purpose - to catch the ball by foot and send him back to his players.
Forwards the second line (lock) put his head between the torso and the hooker pillars: they provide a major effort to promote the fight ahead. On each side of the third line are the left and right wing forwards (flanker, or wing forward), and in the center - constricting, or Eight (number eight).
The scrum half, or nine (scrum-half) of the attacking team throws in the ball resulting in a corridor, and the hooker trying to catch it and pass back to its astringent or nines, which rise behind the scrum. Quest finished when the ball left the table or if she turned 90 ° - then appoint a new battle, the ball which enters the defending team.
Violation of the rules.
During cancer, mole and battle players are prohibited from taking positive steps being offside, that is, between an imaginary line prohodschey behind the heel of the last player to his team, participating in the ruck, maul or scrum and the line of the opponents' goal. For violation of a direct free kick. You can not actively try to play, being in front of his teammate with the ball and try to take possession of the ball after the kick, made by the player of his team, if during the strike, he was not in front of the player trying to grab the ball.
Forbidden to pass forward and let it bounce forward from the body (play forward) - exceptions are allowed if the player managed to catch the ball until it has touched the ground, and in the case of blocking kicks from the opponent. If after a pass or a game ahead of the team loses the ball, the referee may give a temporary advantage to the opposing team if they lose the ball, the game will be stopped and the judge will appoint a battle in their favor.
Numerous violations of rules govern within cancer mole and fight. When capturing is forbidden to aim at the head and shoulders of the opponent, the player should always seek it grab it. Prohibited steps, although seizures feet allowed.
Usually at random disturbances (such as a pass or knock on) a scrum, for deliberate - the free-kick. The team with the right to a free kick can knock it (if the ball from the penalty area goes out of bounds, the team will throw, punching penalty) may exercise the right to fight.
For gross violations of the player can get a yellow card: then he must leave the field for 10 minutes. Red card means removing the remainder of the game. Rugby is also prohibited any obstruction of an opponent without the ball (the only exception is if both players are running shoulder to shoulder). If the foul attempt to prevent the inevitable, the attacking team receives a penalty try (5 points) and the right to sell.
If a defensive player made a pass in his end zone, and received his player touched them to the ground, the attacking team is awarded a scrum 5 meters from the goal line.
The history of rugby.
It is believed that rugby came in 1863, when one William Webb Ellis, while playing soccer in Rugby School, took the ball in his hands and ran with it to the gate. However, well-established rules for a long time was not (as in the "normal" football) team before the match every time they agreed on. When in 1863, was created by the English Football Association, it is forbidden to take the ball in his hands and try to take it at the opponent.
So familiar to us football and rugby became separate sports (which is why football is sometimes called association football). In 1871 was created the Union football Rugby (RFU, Rugby Football Union), still exercising control of rugby in England, and in 1886 - International rugby union.
The first international match was played March 27, 1871 in Edinburgh between the teams England and Scotland. Soon rugby spread to other countries, in particular in the UK, many of ownership: Australia, New Zealand (1870), South Africa (1875). In North America, developed from rugby American and Canadian football.
By the end of the XIX century there has been a gap between the north of England, where rugby has become very popular among the workers and the townspeople, and the south, where this game remained largely a privilege of gentlemen. The main issue was the opportunity to become professionals, ie getting paid for playing rugby. As a result, August 29, 1895 in Huddersfield has been formed "North rugby union» (NRFU). Teams to join the Northern Union, allowed to be composed of professionals. Rules of the game were also somewhat changed, and in 1901 was formed Northern rugby league.
In the early XX century, similar splits occurred in Australia and New Zealand. A new game called Rugby League (sometimes called the Russian Rugby 13, the number of players per team). The "old" rugby began to avoid confusion call rugby union (since its rules were originally drafted RFU). Rugby Union remained strong in the south of England and in Scotland and Wales (where he was popular among workers, especially among miners from the valleys to the south).
Amateur status of rugby union has always aroused a lot of debate. Regulatory authorities did their best to support him, and any appearance on the field with players, professionals could lead to disqualification or even ban to appear on the matches, even as a fan. Nevertheless, very often against the leading players were allegations that they get per game money, and considerable. Many great players also moved into rugby league. As a result, in 1995 it was decided to make rugby union professional sport.
This led to a sharp rise in popularity of rugby union, due in part to the influx of money into the sport for the advertising, broadcast and tou like. Quality of the game also increased dramatically (although not everyone agrees). On the other hand, the transition to professionalism has led to the ruin of many clubs, as well as a dramatic increase in the gap between the rich teams from countries where rugby is very popular (such as the UK, France, Italy, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa), and representatives of the relatively poor, where rugby is not a lot of fans (eg, Romania, Georgia, Samoa, Namibia).
The main event.
Since 1987, every four years, held Rugby World Cup. Who are the British world champions who have won the Cup of William Webb Ellis in 2003. Prior to that, he won the New Zealand team (1987), Australia (1991, 1999) and South Africa (1995).
Major annual international competition in the Northern Hemisphere - Six Nations, who are playing together England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland, France and Italy. First for the cup fought four teams from Great Britain and Ireland (m. N. Home Nations). In 1910 they were joined by France, in 2000 - Italy. The winner in 2006 was the French team.
As part of the Cup and played a "small" prizes. Team, winning all five games, got a big helmet. Teams of four "home nations" further fighting for the Triple Crown, which is received by the team, which will be able to win all three of the others. Last time Grand Slam and Triple Crown in 2005 won the national team of Wales. Team lost all five games, gets a "wooden spoon."
In the southern hemisphere plays a similar role Cup Tri Nations, which are involved in the drawing of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Team Australia and New Zealand further play out in the matches among themselves Bledislou Cup. Now both belong Cup Team New Zealand.
European teams compete for the second-tier European Nations Cup. Teams participating in the competition, organized by the European Association of Rugby (FIRA-AER), are divided into several divisions. Himself Cup is played in the first division, where competitions are spread over two seasons. In the drawing 2004/06's play in the first division team of Romania, Georgia, Portugal, Czech Republic, Russia and Ukraine.