Biathlon (from Lat. Bis - twice and Greek. Racing, wrestling) - Winter Olympic sport that combines ski race with rifle shooting. Biathlon is the most popular in Germany, Russia and Norway. C 1993 and at the moment all the major international biathlon competitions, including the World Cup and World Championships, held under the auspices of the International Biathlon Union (English. International Biathlon Union, IBU).
The first race, which is vaguely reminiscent of the biathlon, was held in the back in 1767. Her guards organized by the Swedish-Norwegian border. As a sport biathlon took shape in the XIX century in Norway as an exercise for the soldiers. Biathlon was introduced in the Olympics in 1924, 1928, 1936 and 1948 In 1960, included in the program of the Winter Olympic Games. The first winner of the Olympic Games (in Squaw Valley, 1960) was a Swede K. Lestander.
Distribution and popularity.
Biathlon sport is popular primarily in the northern, central and eastern Europe, including Russia. The most successful countries in the history of biathlon are Germany, Norway, Russia, France and Sweden. Some distribution of biathlon is in the German-speaking part of Italy, Japan, China and North America.
Rules and equipment.
In biathlon allowed all ski equipment, but can not be used to move any means other than skis and ski poles. The length of ski depending on the growth of the athlete - they should not be shorter than the rise athlete minus 4 cm, the maximum length is not limited. Commonly used cross-country skis light weight of 250 g and 5 cm wide. Used for firing a rifle with a minimum weight of 3.5 kg, which is transported during the race on the back.
Prohibited automatic and semi-automatic weapons. During the descent the trigger index finger must overcome the weight of at least 500, the optical sight rifles are not allowed to have the effect of increasing the target. Caliber cartridges is 5.6 mm (.22 LR), and the velocity of the bullet when fired at a distance of 1 m from the muzzle, must not exceed 380 m / s.
On the shooting distance to the target is 50 meters. The diameter of the target when firing from a prone position has 45 mm, and from a standing position - 115 mm. Target traditionally black, their quantity is five pieces. As you hit the target white closed valve that allows biathletes immediately see the result of his firing. In all kinds of races, with the exception of the relay, each shooting range in biathlon at the disposal of five shots.
Classic individual race was the first discipline of biathlon. In its present form it is a 20-kilometer race for men and 15 for women, consisting of 5 laps to 4 km (3 km for women) with 4 firing between the circles. Athletes start separately, one after another at intervals of 30 seconds. The first and third shooting made from a prone position. Second and fourth shooting are made from a standing position. For each miss at the time of the passage of distance athlete is added one minute.
Race to 10 km for men and 7.5 for women with two shooting. The first shooting prone, standing second. Athletes start separately. For each miss penalty provided for the passage of an athlete segment distance of 150 meters.
Race 12.5 km for men and 10 km for women with 4 shooting bouts. Start given separately, on the basis of the positions taken in the previous sprint. The first runner athlete who took first place, followed by the second at intervals of a lag in the sprint race, and so on. D. Total starts a maximum of 60 athletes. For each miss penalty provided for the passage of an athlete segment distance of 150 meters.
Race with a mass start.
Race to 15 km for men and 12.5 km for women with 4 shooting bouts. Race with a mass start (or simply "mass start") - one of the newest and most interesting types of contests. It involved 30 of the strongest athletes on the basis of past events. Start all athletes take at the same time. For each miss penalty provided for the passage of an athlete segment distance of 150 meters.
Relay Men: 4 stages to 7.5 km. Relay Women's 4 x 6 km stage. Participated in the competition team of 4 people. At each stage, two firing line (first lying down, standing up to the second). Unlike other races, the athlete 8 rounds for every 5 targets.
After using the first five rounds and in the presence of uncovered targets the athlete must be manually reloaded on one cartridge. If the athlete is not able to close the 5 targets 8 rounds, then for each target unpatched provided passage athlete penalty segment distance of 150 meters.
In this relay are involved both men and women. The first and third stage are men, and the second and fourth are women. At each stage, two firing line (first lying down, standing up to the second). As in a conventional relay the athlete 8 rounds for every 5 targets. If the athlete is not able to close the 5 targets 8 rounds, then for each target unpatched provided passage athlete penalty segment distance of 150 meters.
Currently underway in the framework of the "Festival of the North" and the Russian Championship. There are two types of races: the team sprint (7.5-10 km distance, two firing line, which fired on two members of the team - the first line of lying, standing in the second), as well as the actual team race (distance of 15-20 km, and four fire abroad - on each of them shoots athlete).
A variation of the command of the race is also a "race patrols" - a distance of 20 km for women and 25 km for men; each team of 5 people; two firing line (lying and standing), which shoots at once, each biathlete. Race patrols carried out today in the championship of the world in the military. In any kind of command of the race in case of a miss any of the members of the team free-range runs the entire team.