Cycling - a sport in which athletes are not necessary to go as quickly as possible competitive distance on bicycles. Distinguish the competition on the track, road, cross-country mountain bike. To include cycling and riding and figured a ball game on bicycles (velobop, velopolo), but these latter types are not included in the Olympic program.
The International Cycling Union (Y SI) was founded in 1900 in its structure (up to 1992) - International lover ekaya Cycling Federation (FIAC), founded in 1965, and the International Federation of professional cycling (FIKP), from 1993 to the amateur division and cal professional federations deemed unnecessary, and was formed by a single International Cycling Union, which unites 160 national federations (2002).
In the program of the Olympic Games since 1896 for men, 1984 - Women's. At the Olympic Games competition program 1896-1924 was compiled at random: in some cases included only race on the track (1900.1904) or only on the Highway (1912). Initially, only men competed. Women allowed to participate in road racing in 1984, racing on the track - since 1988.
-Personal championship road race - men;
-Personal championship road race - women;
-Personal championship race against time - men;
-Personal championship race against time - women.
- 1000 m time trial - men;
- 500 m time trial - women;
- Individual pursuit (3000 m) - the woman;
- Individual pursuit (4000 m) - the men;
- Keirin - men;
- Madison - men;
- Olympic sprint - men;
- Points race - men;
- Points race - women;
- Sprint - Women;
- Sprint - men;
- Team pursuit (4000t) - men.
- Individual - men;
- Individual - female.
History of cycling:
The history of cycling is closely linked with the history of the bicycle. First bikes are still very imperfect, appeared in the first third of the 19th century. Soon, a two-wheeled bike was fitted with a rod on the day of re stake behold, later its design has been improved. In 1869 there was a chain transfer, and in 1888 solid rubber tires were replaced with pneumatic (who later did znamenitpl Scottish physician anlop D).
In 1869 took place the first major competition, it was a race Paris - Rouen, the distance between them was 120 km. Race winner Englishman Moore then reached an average speed of 11 km per hour. In Russia, the first bicycle race was held July 24, 1883 at the Moscow Hippodrome. By the early 20th century. Russia had more than 20 cycling clubs uniting thousands of cyclists who have become tunable cycling races of domestic and foreign athletes.
In 1918 for the first time cyclists competed for the title of the RSFSR, the winners were F. Kryuchkov and M. Boysher. Since then, Soviet Russia and then the Soviet Union started regular competitions in cycling. But only in 1954 the first Soviet cyclists took part in the VII bicycle race in the world.
The first Olympic cycling race held at the I Olympic Games in Athens in 1896 at a distance of 87 km. In 1912 at the Stockholm Olympic distance was already 320 km. Hal Olympics were leading cyclists France and the UK, and then they were joined by athletes from Denmark, Italy, Germany, the Soviet Union. Among domestic cyclists highest achievements made by Victor Kapitonov (Olympic champion in the group road race at the Olympic Games in Rome in I960), Sergey Suhoruchenkov (Moscow Olympics champion in the road race, recognized as the strongest cyclist World Amateur polls French newspaper "L'Equipe").
The program of competitions in general began to be determined in 1928 and little changed until 1992 Racing on the track is envisaged to git a place 1000 meters (in the form of fixed records), sprint, individual and team pursuit at the 4000 m, group and Team Road Race . In 1908-1972 held the race track on tandems. Each national team could be represented by 15 riders, each athlete had claimed the right to act in any discipline.
However, the rules of the competition limited the number of starters: a round from the place sprint and individual pursuit on the track - one athlete in the group road race - four, in command on the road race of 100 km and the team pursuit on the track - one team of four. Teamwork and group road races are held separately from I960. Prior to this, in the team race counted sum of the results shown by athletes of each of the participating countries of the competition. The competition in 1912 was taken into account the sum of four, and in 1920-1956 - the sum of the three results.
The program of the 1996 Olympic Games include new kinds of races for men and women - individual race on the highway and cross-country, and excluded the team pursuit on the highway. Thus, at the Games razygryv alos 14 sets of medals: Group road race, individual pursuit on BP emya (men and women); natreke - git 1000 meters from the place (men), sprint and individual pursuit (men and women), Team Pursuit (men), points race (men and women); mountain bike - cross country (men and women).
Changed the system of admission to the Olympics 1996: The total number of athletes qualifying competitions determined by the system and for racing on a highway shall be not more than 200 men and 60 women; on the track - 186 athletes (men and women), mountain bike - 50 men and 30 women.
Double Olympic champion cyclist became Vyacheslav Ekimov. At the Olympic Games in Seoul (1988), he played in the team pursuit on the track, and in Sydney (2000) was the author of one of the most pleasant sensations, ahead of all competitors in the individual time trial starting on the highway.