Karting - Racing on the cards, small cars, consisting of a frame, engine and motorcycle seats. Although the speed and acceleration card is much lower than that of a racing car, due to the sharp turns and short straight races on the cards inherent dynamics comparable to Formula 1.
In the 30 years in the United States among the boys was popular skating with slides on non-motorized carts. It is believed that the kart invented military pilots in the United States after World War II. They built from scrap materials small cars and arranged for them to race the flying field. But this hobby was distributed only in narrow circles, until the cause has not undertaken Art Ingles (en: Art Ingels), a former pilot, mechanic department of the company "Kurtis Kraft Company" in Glendale, which produced racing cars. He in August 1956 at a car race in Pomona presented to the public a simple card. Machine named cart (trolley).
In 1957, Bill Rawls, Duffy Livingstone and Roy Desbrou (English. Bill Rowles, Duffy Livingstone, Roy Desbrow) create a company Go-Kart Company, producing maps. Affairs of the company were so successful that it was possible to buy a plot of 5 acres, on which was built the first go-kart track. Simultaneously Ingles founds Ingels-Borelli.
In 1958, the British businessman Mickey Flynn orders from the Go-Kart five cards. Already in 1960, in the UK there are more than 100 companies engaged in the production of maps and accessories. Since February 1960, the UK began to publish the magazine «Karting». In May 1960 the FIA officially recognized kart racing views. In 1962, an International Commission of karting at the FIA (CIK FIA). In 1964, in Rome, held the first world championship of karting engines volume of 100 cm ?.
As you can see the typical card of those years. They were distinguished by a very simple design, low power engines and the complete lack of any kind of security measures were. The price of this card is varied from 100 to 200 dollars.
It is due to the ease and cheapness of karting in the early years of its existence gained wide popularity. But by 1962 the boom ended in the kart. Number of manufacturing firms fell. Cards have become powerful and sophisticated, but also more expensive. In place of the simple frames from water pipes come with a delicate design elasticity. Increasing the speed required an increase in security. As with any other technical sport, karting were professionals.
Cards, because of its light weight, is often used for a top record speed on machines with a small volume of the engine, as well as to experiment with unusual power plants. There are several attempts to install maps jet engine, the highest recorded speed - 407 km / h . German physicist and Energy Layng cards built with a steam engine to demonstrate how a compact and reliable can be such a power plant. In 1981, the USSR conducted demonstration competition among electric karts.
Karting in the USSR.
Karting in the Soviet Union begins in 1960, when a graduate of Kharkov Highway Institute Lion Kononov Kursk built the first Soviet maps. Another focus of the Soviet karting helpful Kharkov Palace of Pioneers, which opened section of karting. Also in 1960, the Federation of Automobile Sports of the USSR adopted the "Rules of the competition, classification and technical requirements for microcars such as" Maps "."
Due to the simplicity - cards can be collected even in the garage of the available parts - karting became the most widespread type of motorsport. First card made by yourself. The main problem was to find a suitable tire. In the course were the wheels of the scooter, helicopters and the like. At stake is the training even enhanced cycling. Hats children's sizes were not, they were made independently of fiberglass (fiberglass + epoxy resin). In 1964, Tallinn repair plant builds the first issue of the Soviet serial card.
Soviet kartingistov first came on the international scene in 1965, taking part in the race for "Crystal Cup", which took place among the socialist countries. Won the championship racers from the GDR. Boom-kart in the USSR fell on the 70s. Specialized kartodromy was not enough. Typical kart section possessed paved area in a few acres, which marked out training routes. The competition was held mostly at the cycle track, race track, airfields. Subsequently, from racing cycling tracks refused because of their insecurity.
Production of the card takes the Odessa factory DOSAAF, KamAZ, Leningrad Production Association "Patriot" DOSAAF Abovyan Plant DOSAAF. However, the design of the card was far from perfect, and I had to modify it yourself. In technical journals ("Young technician", etc..) Published drawings of homemade cards.
By the time the Soviet Union collapsed in 5 sections with thousands of schools, the Palace of Pioneers and young technicians involved 130,000 people. Each year, the competitions of the Union republics and the USSR. With the collapse of the USSR karting fell into decay due to lack of funding. A few years after the collapse of the Soviet Union there was a stratum of people who want extreme and are willing to pay for it. For them in the big cities began to appear rental karting site. Even with the high price ($ 10 for a 10-minute check-in) track rental kart are not empty.
The basis of the card is the frame, welded from steel pipes. The material of the frame must be magnetic, i.e., duralumin, titanium and carbon prohibited. Located on the frame's seat, steering and engine. In sports cards engine usually located to the right of the driver (so, for a ride on this map requires insulating pad on the sleeve jumpsuit); in rolling maps - at the back so that you can ride even without protective clothing, without the risk of getting burned.
Powerplant card is carbureted gasoline engine air or water cooling; push-pull on sports cards and four stroke on rolling. The motor can be moved back and forth (to ensure correct chain tension). For all maps is a limit to the level of noise.
On the maps there are three options for transmission: In sports maps of the lower classes (mostly children) plays the role of the transmission chain drive. This card can not stand still with the engine running; engine starts with "pusher", and start with a given course. On rolling and some sports cards: automatic centrifugal clutch and chain drive. If you do not press simultaneously on the gas and on the brake, there is no risk off the engine.
On the majority of sports cards: gearbox with clutch. The rotation of the rear axle is also passed through a chain drive. Depending on the class is permitted for two to six gears. Clutch control lever to the left under the wheel; the shift lever to the right of the seat. Differential prohibited. Drive to the rear wheels.
Elastic suspension on the map not; as shock absorbers and tires play frame. The front wheels are usually smaller than the rear diameter. There are several types of rubber: slicks, intermediates, rain. Differential in the map is not, so the elasticity of the frame is calculated so that the rotation of the inner rear wheel is in the air. Due to the lack of suspension kart requires a very smooth asphalt; almost invisible bumps on the road leading to strong shaking.
Steering on the map of the simplest type: steering rods connected with wheel steering. Therefore, the steering wheel is extremely hard map, rotated about 45 ° in each direction. Other types of steering in karting prohibited.
Depending on the class, the maps are: mechanical brakes on the rear axle (found in cheap rental cards, are also allowed in some children's classes), hydraulic brakes on the rear axle (in the maps without gearbox); hydraulic brakes on all wheels (in the charts with the gearbox). Carbon brakes are prohibited.
The side of the box, front and rear bumpers protect the rider and mechanisms in the collision map. The chain drive is closed housing that does not allow the chain to fly off to the side. Brake Rod duplicated rope. In the maps with the brakes on all four wheels front and rear circuits operate independently, and in case of failure of one can slow down a second. Bottom of the frame is polik - plate, which supports the foot. All these measures make karting safe enough view of motorsport.
For maximum speed sports cards can be customized. Subject to these settings: tire pressure; installation / removal of the stabilizer bar (on some models); gear ratio chain drive; weight distribution map (adjusted by moving the seat); convergence of the steering wheel; Front clearance; brake balance (in the charts with brakes on all wheels); track on both axes; setting the engine operating condition; Setting the clutch (especially centrifugal).
Kart racing is for some the first step in motorsport, for others - expensive but fun hobby. Most of the drivers in Formula 1 began his career in karting; among them Michael Schumacher, Mika Hakkinen and Fernando Alonso. Sports classes are divided into international formulas, international classes, classes and national amateur classes. Here are only the most important parameters of sports cards, with all the details can be found in the official documentation.
International formula (group 1).
Formula-A, Formula Super A: single-cylinder air-cooled engine to 100 cm ?, spool gas distribution, without a gearbox. Age pilot with 14 years. Formula-C: single-cylinder air-cooled engine up to 125 cm? air or water cooling with manual transmission. Age pilot with 16 years. International competitions are not held by him in 2006, in Russia is excluded from 2007
SUPERMAP (Division 1 and 2): two-cylinder engine (or two identical single-cylinder) air or water cooling with the total volume to 250 cm ?, gearbox. Age pilot with 16 years. Do SUPERMAP, unlike all the other classes are allowed splashes. In these classes, restrictions are minimal. Fuel racer for the season - about 100 000 $.
International classes (group 2).
Intercontinental A: single-cylinder air-cooled engine to 100 cm without a gearbox, the minimum empty weight 65 kg, 150 kg with driver. Pilot age of 15 years. Intercontinental A Junior: map characteristics are similar to, but more stringent demands on the engine. The minimum weight of an empty 65 kg, 135 kg with driver. Pilot age 13-17 years.
Intercontinental-C: water-cooled engine capacity of up to 125 cm c 3-6 gears. Minimum weight with driver 170kg. Pilot age of 16 years. Intercontinental-E: engine air or water cooling up to 250 cm c 3-5 gears. The minimum weight of 205 kg with driver. Pilot age of 16 years.
Rotax-Max: single cylinder water-cooled engine ROTAX FR 125 MAX, without a gearbox. Age pilot with 15 years. Rotax-Max Junior: similarly, but the age of 13-17 years old Pilot. World Formula 4-stroke air or water cooling capacity of up to 220 cm, without a gearbox. Age pilot with 14 years.
National classes (group 3)
National classes are created by national motorsport federation. In different countries are different. As a rule, national classes used motors domestic producers. In Russia, the competition is held in such national classes: Pioneer: single cylinder air-cooled engine of up to 50 cm ?, with full flow valve or piston timing gears 2-5. Pilot age 8-12 years.
Cadet: single cylinder air-cooled engine of up to 50 cm, with a piston gas distribution, with the gearbox. Pilot age 11-16 years. Micro: single cylinder air forced cooling RAKET 60 CD (60 cm?), With a piston gas distribution, production Radne Motor AB (Sweden), without a gearbox. Pilot age 5-9 years. Mini: single cylinder air forced cooling RAKET 85 Racing (85 cm), with a piston gas distribution, production Radne Motor AB (Sweden), without a gearbox. Pilot age 8-12 years.
Missiles: Mini is similar, but the age of the pilot 11-15 years. The Union: single cylinder air-cooled engine of up to 125 cm, with full-flow valve or piston timing gears 4-6. Age pilot with 16 years. Allied-Junior: similar to the Union, but the age of the pilot 13-18. Class "E" (snow track races): single-cylinder air-cooled engine of up to 250 cm, with the gearbox. Age pilot with 16 years.
Amateur and hobby classes (groups 4 and 5).
In these classes, competitions and prizes are played, but in this event it is impossible to get the sports category. These include rolling kart classes and adult classes with low-power cards.
Competitions are held at the factory classes karts and engines manufacturers. They can be recognized by the National Federation of karting (eg, Micro, Mini, Racquet, Rotax-Max) or amateur. Factory classes require that all parts of card (or engine) were only given manufacturer, without any modifications.
Also of note is the factory class series Easykart, which maps to the consumer comes to collect, in the back of a truck. Series is designed to ensure that the operating costs for the season on the same machine do not exceed $ 1,000. In this series, there are different classes - from children to the powerful Easykart 50cc Easykart 125cc Shifter gearbox. Easykart gaining distribution in Russia, but at the moment (2006) is an amateur.
Current trends in the world of sports kart: reducing the number of classes; reducing the cost of the race; gradual transition to four-stroke engines; transition to engines with electric start (instead of a rope or with "pusher").
Perhaps the only way for "mere mortals" to feel like a racing driver, while being completely safe - it's a rental kart. Typical rental card has a four-stroke engine capacity of up to 9 liters. s. and automatic (centrifugal) clutch. With this design, went to cards, just click on the gas; if you stop, the engine is not stalling.
Low speed rolling map does not lead to serious damage, but allows you to experience the dynamics of racing. The brakes of the rental card only on the rear axle, so brake cornering requires special care. The most common engine in the rolling maps - Honda GX270 (9 p. P.). Also, there are less powerful Honda GX160 and GX200.
Upon the occurrence of rain tires map does not change to rain, continue to drive on slicks. Therefore, on a wet road map control is difficult. However, there are people who come specifically for karting in the rain. Age limit is simple: children are allowed, as are just beginning to get to the pedals. On some karting venues offer less powerful cards for children. On many karting venues are held periodically amateur competition.
Safety on the rental karts.
It is forbidden to sit in the card without a helmet. It is forbidden to drive while intoxicated and under the influence of drugs known to affect the reaction. Not allowed people who are contraindicated shaking and blows (pregnant women, people with diseases of the cardiovascular system, and so on. D.). Long hair must be hidden under a helmet or clothing. All items of clothing that may impair driving, should be removed. Take out of the pockets of hard and sharp objects.
Do not press the gas pedal and the brake at the same time - it overload the engine and clutch. Do not touch the engine - it is fraught with burns. Prohibited from traveling in the opposite direction.
Prohibited contact fighting. Can not in any way interfere with was faster card. You can not deliberately create dangerous situations on the road. Can not be operated with one hand. The left leg should always be on the brake pedal. If you have an accident and cards can not be returned to the track under its own power, do not leave the card and do not press on the gas. Instead, raise your hand and wait for the help of mechanics. Unquestioningly follow the signals mechanics.