Karate (Jap. Karate-do "way of the empty hand") - a Japanese martial art. This writing was invented in 1929 by Funakoshi Gichin under the influence of Zen Buddhism. In Japan Karate got off the island of Okinawa in the early XX century. Okinawa was once the center of an independent Ryukyu Kingdom, which had close trade relations with China and Japan. In the XVII century the Ryukyu kingdom was conquered by the Satsuma samurai principality, and became his vassal.
At the moment in Western literature from book to book wander legend that supposedly Okinawans were constant guerrilla warfare against the Japanese invaders, and for the sake of the struggle created the art of karate, although historical documents record the complete submission Okinawans occupiers; the fact that the population of three hundred thousandth of the island there are just over a dozen samurai Japanese garrison, speaks for itself.
Martial Arts on the island practiced mainly among the descendants of immigrants from China, and from there gradually got to the other residents. In karate, do not use edged weapons. As it is the cause of this just was the conquest of the island and the prohibition of the production, the more wear and the use of bladed weapons. Nevertheless, karate widespread use of other available tools such as: pole nunchaku m. N.
At the end of the XIX century, during the administrative reforms in Japan, Ryukyu was eliminated status as a vassal state, and Okinawa has become just another prefecture of the Empire of Japan. During the recruitment of doctors drew attention to the fact that a number of recruits from Okinawa differed good physical development; it was found that they were engaged in the local martial art of karate.
It served as an argument for inclusion in the program of karate teaching in junior high schools in Okinawa as a physical education and has led to its widespread use; the reverse side of this process was that karate began to lose features martial arts and become militarized gymnastics.
At the beginning of the XX century in Okinawa, there was a very severe economic situation, and the people of Okinawa masses moved to the main Japanese islands in search of work. Together with them, got there and karate. However, the Japanese karate did not pay much attention to until in 1920 the Okinawa Motobu Choki master has not won in a public battle western boxer, and the magazine "King" is not printed on this colorful report.
However, since the Okinawan dialect very different from the classical Japanese language, the Japanese are more willing to go to those who are able to teach in the classical Japanese, and these were mostly people of Okinawan schools, who studied karate already upgraded program. Thus in Japan karate began to spread mainly it is in "Sports" version; There are many sayings Okinawan masters 1920-40's that Japanese karate severely distorted in comparison with the Okinawan this.
One of the main centers of karate clubs began at universities. So as a student studying in the university a few years, then for the sake of attracting training program involved in these clubs much changed compared to the Okinawan system of education: young people did not want to learn the basics in a few years of basic techniques. This process led to a movement in the direction of the Western Karate sport, which finally ended after World War II.
Karate is one of the sports-Candidates for inclusion in the program of the Olympic Games. One of the obstacles on the way to the status of an Olympic sport is a high injury athletes. Existing Karate Federation: WKF (World Karate Federation) - World Karate Federation ESKA (Eropean Shotokan Karate Association) - The European Association of Shotokan Karate WSKA (World Shotokan Karate Association) - World Shotokan Karate Association and others.
Training is based on three main techniques:
kihon- training frameworks;
Kumite - training in the pair; divided into the match and due to free fight;
kata - formal exercises.
The four elements of the kata:
Bunkai - Analysis;
oё - the application;
Hank - variations;
kakusi - stealth.