One had to always uphold the chosen plot of land, rivers, lakes, dead animal, and so on. N., So the fight in a utilitarian sense, has always been a means of survival, self-preservation. In more recent times, the struggle began to play a crucial role in the application of physical training of soldiers. Genuine development struggle reached in ancient Greece. It is widely expressed in Greek literature and fine arts.
The importance and popularity of the struggle in Greece is the fact that after the run it was included in the program of the first (shortly after 776g. BC. E.) Olympic Games. In classical Greek Pentathlon - pentathlon (running, javelin, discus throwing, jumping, wrestling) the original program number just match it became a struggle. Later the fight entered the pankration - Connect fighting fist fight - is a third of its kind in the ancient Olympic Games.
National love for the race in ancient Greece has spawned a massive spectacle. There are professionals for certain types of events (running, jumping, wrestling, pugilism). Vividly professionalism manifested in the struggle, as it was the most popular fighting spectacle, and fighters - professionals trained in special schools. Having conquered Greece, Rome mastered the Greek culture. Fighting the Romans also became one of the most popular circus shows, and winners became idols of the crowd.
Fighting in Rome demonstrated in combination with the fist, and in the battles of gladiators - the armed fight. With the advent of Christianity gradually these types of combat are on the decline at the end of the IV century BC were closed all public schools of gladiators and ceased to exist Olympics. The struggle remains, however, a favorite national pastime and in the dark years of the Middle Ages. At the end of the XVIII early XIX century in Europe began to take shape modern Greco-Roman wrestling.
Its main provisions were laid in France, where the struggle while particularly fond of and in the countryside and in the cities. Since competition fighters evoked great interest strongmen of the people began to act in a traveling circus, summer gardens, local festivities and amusements. Later begin to play out the championship cities of France, and then organized and world championships. Good organization of the championships, wide advertising created a professional wrestling extraordinary success.
In 1848. in Paris were first arena in which wrestlers were - professionals. France start coming fighters from other countries (Germans, Italians, Turks, Russian ...), to take part in these championships, get to know their organization, the rules of the competition. Subsequently, they begin to organize this kind of competition in their respective countries. As a result, a stunt received international recognition, and in its name sounded the name of the country, to make this kind of fight is truly a mass sport. Of course, the fight has evolved into the world in a variety of ways.
It depended on national traditions, from the influence of neighboring countries, cultures, and so on. G. In Europe has spread French (Greco-Roman) struggle in Asia, East, in America - freestyle wrestling. In 1896. French wrestling was included in the first modern Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee has given her official name - the Greco-Roman wrestling, to make the fight as a sport international.
Participated in the first Olympic Games 5 people, they were 4 countries (two were from Greece, one in Germany, Hungary, the United Kingdom). Division fighters into weight categories at these Games was not. Since then, Greco-Roman wrestling with the exception of two Olympic Games (1900 and 1904. G) invariably included in the program of Olympic competitions. In 1912. was founded by the International Wrestling Federation (FILA - FILA). Today it is one of the largest and most influential sporting organizations.
As for the name, in different years, this kind of fight was called variously professionals called it "French wrestling" fans - "Greco-Roman". In our country in 1948. Union Committee for Physical Culture and Sports has approved the following names for certain types of wrestling: French or Greco-Roman wrestling became known as the "classic" loosely-American - "free", the former wrestling was called "Sambo" (from reduced "self-defense without weapons"). Finally, in 1991. adopted the name "Greco-Roman" instead of "classic."
In Greco-Roman wrestling grips limited upper body, and participants are not allowed to use the techniques with the actions of the legs. Freestyle allows to capture any part of the body, seizures Allowed leg sweeps and shoving. Prior to the 50s in international competitions were the most successful in the Greco-Roman wrestling representatives of Finland and Sweden, have repeatedly achieved success wrestlers from Hungary, Turkey.
With the release in 1952. the Olympic arena fighters from the Soviet Union is traditionally the strongest experts called Soviet, now Russian athletes (despite the bad performance in Atlanta). Strong as Cuba, Germany, Ukraine, Poland. In the program of the Olympic Games 1996. in Greco-Roman wrestling competition going on in this weight category up to 48kg, 52kg, 57kg up to 62kg to 68kg to 74kg to 82kg to 90kg, 100kg, 130kg up.
How is the winner?
Quest ends when the count down, the fighter is unable to put both blades of the enemy on the carpet (at least half a second). The advantage of 10 points one of the contenders will also lead to an end to the bout. In addition, the victory is scored when a wrestler scored the most points by the end of the five-minute match or his opponent is disqualified or injured. If none of the contestants are not scored more than three points, or they have an equal number of points, given additional time. After losing one athlete withdraws from the fight for "gold", but it may in the end prove to be a contender for the bronze medal.
Fighting as a form of entertainment and a display of strength and courage has always been popular in Russia. She attended all the holidays and festivities. The Russian people are resigned to fight a lot of proverbs, tales and fairy tales, which glorified the strength and courage, described fights Russian heroes. Original ways Russian people's struggle should be regarded as a struggle "not to fight" and "in a fight." When the fight "not to fight" opponents take each other by the collar with one hand or his belt, and from this position, each trying to throw the other to the ground with his foot podshibaya his leg.
When the fight "in the fight" allowed arbitrarily to capture enemy hands on the trunk. After the capture of each sought to throw the opponent to the ground. Over time, these kinds of mind gave way to the main Russian struggle - belt wrestling. In this kind of struggle of mutual capture both hands are needed to throw the opponent to the back without the use of pegs and cuttings.
The extensive development of professional wrestling has received during the emergence of Russian booth, and then the circus. Starting from 1860. belt wrestling becomes an integral part of the circus program, the wrestlers competed not only in combat, but also in a variety of exercises with weights.
As in other countries, wrestling in Russia has gained recognition in the late XIX century. In 1885. St. Petersburg was founded the first Russian "Amateurs weightlifting sport." Following Petersburg mug lovers struggle were established in Moscow, Kiev, Riga and other cities of Russia. In 1896. was approved by the Charter Petersburg athletic society, and a year later, in 1897., in St. Petersburg hosted the first All-Russian amateur championship fighters, and this date is considered the beginning of the development of amateur sport struggle in Russia.
A major role in the development of amateur sport wrestling played professional wrestling. By itself, the professional wrestling was almost devoid of sports content. The results of labor and the distribution of seats in the championships, mostly pre-planned entrepreneurs. Participants championships were chosen so that interest the viewer and to indulge his not too demanding tastes. Professional wrestling in general was a theatrical performance and a good means of agitation among the fans.
Of professional wrestlers especially great fame acquired Ivan Poddubny, a six-time world champion, were also popular wrestlers Ivan Shemyakin, Ivan Zaikin, Nikolai Vahturov et al. Long time for the fight as a sport in Russia there was no organization. The past in 1897, 1898, 1899. of the national championships were broken, and since 1900. in 1912. Russia championship fight was not. Only in 1913. was created by the All-Russian Union of heavy athletics, which combined activities 16 Russian cities, to cultivate the fight.
This alliance resumed carrying out the national championship. In the same 1913., Took place in Riga fourth championship of Russia. The following championships were held in 1914., In January 1915., And in late 1915, was held in Moscow last - seventh championship pre-revolutionary Russia. Russian fighters for the first time took part in the Games IV Olympiad in 1908. in London, have achieved significant success. In Greco-Roman Orlov (Light Welterweight, 25 participants from 10 countries) won the silver medal, and II took place Petrov (heavy weight, 7 participants from 4 countries).
Russia has officially participated in the following, V Olympic Games in 1912. in Stockholm. This performance was a failure, only M. Klein (average weight, 38 participants from 14 countries) won the Olympic "silver". By the beginning of World War I, Russia had about 20 sports organizations, cultivating the fight, and the total number of fans was 250-300. After World War I, the October Revolution and the Civil War, only in 1924. organized the first USSR championship in Greco-Roman wrestling.
Participated in it 40 athletes. One of the champions was Vladimir Ivanov, author of one of the first to benefit, which was called "French wrestling" and was published in 1929. Ivanov - is also one of the first teachers struggle with the Central Institute of Physical Culture in Moscow (now the Academy of Physical Education). Ivanov brought famous fighters in the thirties and A. G. Pylnova Katulin.
It must be said that the development of each sport is inextricably linked with the rules of the competition. Only in 1914. All-Russian heavy athletics Union adopted the international rules of the fight, and this year all the competitions were held in five weight characteristics (super bantamweight, light, medium, light heavyweight, heavy). Before that there was no uniform rules, and even in the same city competition could take place in different ways.
The first new rule in the Soviet Union were approved and published in 1924. and although in the same year, the first championship of countries regularly USSR championship in Greco-Roman wrestling have been conducted since1933. In the history of international relations and meetings of our fighters can note two periods - the first - since 1924. in 1946., when there were the occasional participation in international competitions in Finland, Sweden and other Scandinavian countries.
After the official introduction of the Wrestling Federation of the USSR in 1947, FILA. national team of the country in the same year for the first time left for the European Championship in Greco-Roman wrestling in Prague. In 1952. at the XV Olympic Games in Helsinki bortsy- "classics" have won just four Olympic gold medals, one silver and two bronze. This allowed them in the team competition to take first place. In total, since 1952., Representatives of the Soviet Union, and then Russia won in Greco-Roman wrestling 38 Olympic gold medals.
The most titled - a two-time Olympic champion and five-time world champion Valery Ryazantsev, two-time Olympic champion Alexander Kolchinskii, Olympic champions and three-time world champions Anatoly Kolesov and Michael Mamiashvili, Olympic champion and five-time world champion Nikolai Balboshin, the only three-time Olympic gold medalist and six-time world champion Alexander Karelin award after his performance at the Olympic Games in Atlanta title Hero of Russia.