Jumping on the ski jumping.
Jumping on the ski jumping - a sport that includes ski jumping from specially equipped kickers. Included in the program Nordic Combined. Jumping on the ski jumping part of the International Ski Federation (FIS).
In the program of the Olympic Winter Games in 1924 - jumping from an average jump (70 m), since 1964 - with a large (90 m). Men only. Since 1992 private competitions are held on jumps of 90 m and 120 m, team - on the trampoline 120 m. Perform jumps evaluated by five judges: machinery (style) implementation (maximum -20 points) and the distance of the jump (on a special table). Result participant is determined by the sum of the two balls scoring attempts. From the national team in each event can serve no more than four athletes.
- K120 individual championship (120 m springboard) men;
- K120 team (120 m springboard) men;
- K90 individual championship (90 m springboard) men.
Jumping on the ski jumping are characterized by a very complex technique that requires the athlete's courage, speed and perfect coordination. The International Ski Federation is planning to make changes in the rules of the competitions in ski jumping. It is about the length of the ski.
The winners in this discipline (this applies to the Combined) have recently become athletes not above 173 cm. Advantage of undersized athletes gives a rule that skiing should not exceed 280 cm. According to the new draft rules, the upper limit will be canceled, so a real chance perform successfully on the trampoline athletes will receive a 2 m or even higher.
History of occurrence ski jumping from a springboard.
The sport originated in Norway, where he was rasprastralen folk custom to compete in the art of riding the mountains (slalom). At first jumps were part of the slalom. Older skiers stood out "miners", is interested primarily riding the mountains. Initially jumped from quite high, located on the mountain slopes, natural ledges, and later - with a specially constructed elevations mounds. And, if earlier prpuny landed on flat ground, it then began to make the landing hill inclined. The length of the flight was not measured, it was important to fly as high as possible.
Jumping is considered the birthplace of the mountain province of Norway T eaten emark. Already in 1840 there were special places for ski jumping and the competitions. Official registration of range jumps started in 1868, the first recorded result- 19 m. Initially the races were not regular, results grew slowly. Since 1906, skiers began to conduct "ski" contest, which consisted in the slopes of the mountains on the speed and cross-country races.
In the program of the competitions were later included turns and jumps with small jumps. Gradually, as a result of specialization, stood several distinct types of skiing - racing, slalom and ski jumping from a springboard. Subsequently, jumping and racing in Norway drove slalom. Jumping began to develop as an independent skiing.
Winter Olympic Games and the world championship in skiing preceded (1901) International competition - Nordic Games. International Ski Federation (FIS) with the 1920s. initiated a worldwide competition for all types of skiing, including competitions in ski jumping. Since 1924, the International Olympic Committee was to hold the Winter Olympics. In 1929, FIS, arguing that the gap in the 4 years between the regular Olympics large, has decided to play the annual world championship for all types of skiing.
Since 1950 championship racing, jumping and biathlon were held once every 4 years, between the Olympic Games. The Norwegians have long been, with few exceptions, the same winners of competitions in ski jumping, both the Winter Olympics ah, and the world championships as well. Norwegians surprised and s on her manner of jump: they bend the body forward and how to bylozhipis formed by a cushion of air.
The long search for coaches and scientists led to a further change in body position jumper in flight: Skier lies almost parallel skiing, hands held tightly to the body. This style became known as "aerodynamic". In 1952 the great success achieved Finnish skiers, and, since 1964 began to receive medals, except the Finns and Norwegians jumpers GDR, the USSR, Austria, Japan, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Germany, and Switzerland.
Since 1945 began jumping evaluated not only by the length of the barrel separation to the landing site, but also beautiful and properly meet the requirements for a hundred of physical fitness jumpers, with the accomplishment of coordination, agility, dynamic equilibrium, the possession of his body, courage. In the team competition the results of the individual team members are summarized.
In official competitions involving only men. However, women also tried out on the trampoline. Swedish schoolgirl Anna Maria Strand in 17 years to make the leap to 42 m. Anita Wold of Norway was even admitted to the international competitions in jumping from the big Olympic ski jump in Sapporo (Japan) and prp-nula 97.5 m.