GYMNASTICS (Greek. Gymnastike, from gymnazo - to practice, coach), one of the oldest sports, which includes competitions in various gymnastic equipment, as well as in the floor exercise and vaulting. Currently, the international tournaments gymnasts are 14 sets of awards: two in the team standings (men and women), two in the absolute primacy of the individual (male and female) and ten in certain types of combined events (4 - women, 6 - men). In the program of the Olympic Games since 1896.
Gymnastics is the technical foundation for many sports related exercises included in the training program for representatives of various sporting disciplines. Gymnastics not only gives some technical skills, but also develops strength, flexibility, endurance, balance, coordination of movements.
Rules. The program of competitions in gymnastics. Exercises on uneven bars. Distinguish parallel (husband) and uneven (female) bars. The projectile consists of two wooden poles oval (in cross section) forms on the metal frame reinforced: men - at a height of 1.75 m, for women - 1.65 and 2.45 m. (Height of gymnastic equipment is measured from the surface located near They fall arrest mats).
Female exercises on the bars include primarily steam in both directions around the upper and lower poles, as well as various technical elements executed over and beneath the rotation around a longitudinal and a transverse axis by means of a grip and two arms (and also without the aid of hands ).
Men's artistic gymnastics combines dynamic (rotation, flapping, etc..) And static (horizontal supports, handstands) elements. The gymnast must use the entire length of the projectile, "work" above and below the bars.
Floor exercise (wives and husband) are performed on a special gymnastic mat 12 × 12m. Passes around the carpet "border security" 1 meter wide. Carpet (wool or synthetic) has an elastic surface - dense enough to jog, but at the same time providing athletes a soft landing. Floor exercises are a combination of individual elements (flip-flops, flips, splits, handstands, etc..) And their cords, different tempo and "mood."
In the course of performance athletes should make maximum use of the entire area of the carpet. Estimate the complexity of the program and its individual elements, as well as purity and self-fulfillment. Equally important is the originality of the submitted composition and artistry athlete - especially for women, whose performances are held with musical accompaniment, and include some dance steps than in many ways reminiscent of the rhythmic gymnastics exercises. Speaking time is limited on the carpet: 1 min 10 sec in both men and women and a half minutes.
Vault (husband. Wives.). Performed with a running start, with the additional support (hence the name of the exercise). Projectile length - 1,6 m, width - 0,35 m. Athlete runs up on a special track, 25 m long and 1 m wide, pushed his feet from the bridge - the cushioning device 20 cm high, inclined to the line of start - and then produces an extra push hands (men allowed push with one hand) of the projectile.
Executable jumps can be straight, flip, flip and so on. D. Males shell set at a height of 1.35 m parallel to the track run, women - at a height of 1.25 m perpendicular to the track. Another significant difference is due to the formula of the competition: men given only one chance, women - two, the results of which displays the average score for the exercise. Estimated height and distance of the jump, its complexity (number of revolutions around the longitudinal and transverse axis, etc..), Purity and clarity of execution touchdown.
Exercises on the balance beam (women) - gymnastic apparatus, 5 m long and 0.1 m wide, secured fixed at a height of 1.25 m above the floor. Exercise is a single composition of dynamic (jumps, twists and turns, "jogging", flips, dance steps, etc..) And static (twine, swallow, and so on. Etc..) Elements performed while standing, sitting and lying on the projectile. Athletes must use the entire length of the log. Judges will evaluate the flexibility, balance and elegance gymnasts. Length of performance - no more than 1 minute 30 seconds.
Exercises on horseback (the husband.) - Special shells with handles, which allow to perform flapping feet. (The same shell, but without handles used in the vault.) Horse is fixed at a height of 1.05 m. Exercises are a combination of swinging and rotational movements, as well as the racks on the hands, under which should involve all of the projectile.
Exercises on the rings (her husband.) - Moving projectile in the form of two wooden rings attached to special cables at a height of 2.55 m. Exercises on the rings (lifts, turns and remove) demonstrate not only flexibility, but also physical strength athlete. Static elements of these exercises are no less complicated to execute than dynamic. According to the rules, dismount from the rings after the performance should be a acrobatic element. As with exercises on the horizontal bar, occupying the original position on the rings, the athlete can take the help of a coach or assistant.
Exercises on the bar (her husband.) - Polished steel rod with a diameter 27-28 mm and a length of 2.5 m, reinforced by two racks using the stretch marks at a height of 2.55 m. According to the rules, performing the rotation (in different directions) around the crossbar the athlete has no right to touch her body. During his speech, he must demonstrate the different types of grips and the ability to clean and clear the transition from one species to another.