Olympic Games, Olympic Games - the largest international multi-sport event of our time, which are held every four years. Tradition, which existed in ancient Greece, at the end of the XIX century was revived by the French public figure of Pierre de Coubertin.
Olympic Games, also known as the Summer Olympic Games were held every four years, starting from 1896, except for the years who came to the world wars. In 1924 were established Olympic Winter Games, which were originally held in the same year as the summer. However, since 1994, the time of the Winter Olympics shifted by two years with respect to the time of the Summer Games.
Ancient Olympic Games.
Olympic Games of ancient Greece were the religious and sports festival, held in Olympia. Information about the origin of games lost, but preserved several legends describing this event. The first documented celebration refers to the 776 BC. e., although it is known that the games were held in the past. At the time of the game was declared a sacred truce, at that time it was impossible to wage war.
Olympics essentially lost its meaning with the arrival of the Romans. After Christianity became the official religion, the game came to be regarded as a manifestation of paganism in 394 BC. e. they were banned by Emperor Theodosius I. One should not confuse the concept of the Olympic Games and the Olympic Games (history), the latter refers to the time interval between the Olympic Games
The revival of the Olympic idea.
Olympic idea and after the ban of ancient races has not disappeared for good. For example, in England during the XVII century, has repeatedly held "Olympic" competitions and contests. Later, similar competitions were organized in France and Greece. Nevertheless, it was a small event, worn, at best, regional. First true precursors of the modern Olympic Games are "Olympia", which were held regularly during the 1859-1888 period. Momentum for these competitions gave the Greek King Otto I.
In 1766, during the excavations at Olympia were found sports and temple structures. In 1875, archaeological research and excavations continued under German leadership. While in Europe were in vogue romantic-idealistic sentiments of antiquity. Desire to revive the Olympic mindset and culture spread fairly quickly throughout Europe. French Baron Pierre de Coubertin (fr. Pierre de Coubertin) then said: "Germany has unearthed what remained of ancient Olympia. Why France can not restore the old greatness? ".
According to Coubertin, that poor physical condition of the French soldiers was one of the reasons for the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. He aims to change the situation by improving the physical culture of the French. At the same time, he wanted to overcome national egoism and to contribute to the struggle for peace and international understanding. "Youth of the World" was facing off in sports, and not on the battlefields. The revival of the Olympic Games in his eyes seemed to be the best solution to achieve both goals.
At the Congress, held 16-23 June 1893 at the Sorbonne (University of Paris), he presented his thoughts and ideas to an international public. On the last day of the Congress (June 23) was confirmed that the first modern Olympic Games to be held in 1896 in Athens, in the country-ancestor Games - Greece. To organize the Games, founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The first president of the Committee was the Greek Demetrius Vikelas (1835-1908), who was president until the end of the Olympic Games I in 1896. Secretary-General was Baron Pierre de Coubertin.
The first modern Games were held did with great success. Despite the fact that participation in the Games took less than 250 athletes, Games have become the largest sporting event, having passed ever since the days of ancient Greece. Greek officials were so pleased with that put forward a proposal of "eternal" the Games Olympics in their homeland, Greece. But the IOC has introduced a rotation between different countries, to every 4 years changed Games venue.
After initial success, the Olympic movement has experienced first in the history of the crisis. Games of 1900 in Paris (France) and 1904 Games in St. Louis (Missouri, USA) were combined with the World's Fair. Sports competitions lasted for months and almost did not use the interest from the audience. At the Olympic Games in St. Louis attended almost exclusively American athletes, as from Europe to get across the ocean in those years it was very difficult for technical reasons.
At the Olympic Games in 1906 in Athens (Greece) again came out on top sporting events and results. Although originally the IOC recognized and supported the holding of these "intermediate Games" (just two years after the previous), now it does not recognize the Games Olympic. Some sports historians believe these Games 1906 Olympic saving ideas, because they prevented the games become "meaningless and unnecessary."
Modern Olympic Games.
Principles, rules and regulations of the Olympic Games are defined by the Olympic Charter, the foundations of which were approved by the International Congress in Paris sports in 1894, acting on a proposal of the French teacher and public figure of Pierre de Coubertin on the organization of the Games on the model of the ancient and the creation of the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
According to the charter Games of the Olympiad "... pool amateur athletes of all countries in a fair and equitable competition. In relation to countries and individuals, no discrimination on racial, religious or political grounds ... ". Games are held in the first year of the Olympiad (4-year period between games). Score Olympiads is carried out since 1896, when the first Olympic Games (I Olympiad - 1896-99). Olympics gets his room and when the game does not take place (for example, VI - in 1916-19, XII-1940-43, XIII - 1944-47).
The symbol of the Olympic Games - five fastened rings, symbolizing the union of the five continents in the Olympic movement, ie. N. Olympic rings. Color rings on the top row - blue for Europe, black for Africa, red for America, in the bottom row - yellow for Asia, green for Australia. In addition to the Olympic sport, the organizing committee has the right to choose to include in the program of demonstration competition 1-2 sports not recognized by the IOC. In the same year as the Olympic Games, 1924 Winter Olympics, which have their own numbering. Venue Olympics IOC selects the right of their organization provided the city and not the country. Duration is not more than 15 days (winter games - no more than 10).
The Olympic Movement has its own emblem and flag, approved by the IOC at the suggestion of Pierre de Coubertin in 1913 Emblem - Olympic rings. Motto - Citius, Altius, Fortius (faster, higher, stronger). Flag - the white flag with the Olympic rings, 1920 rises at all Games.
Among the traditional rituals of the Games:
1 Lighting the Olympic flame at the opening ceremony (the fire ignited by the sun's rays in Olympia and delivered torch relay athletes in the host city of the Games);
2 Uttering one of the greatest athletes of the country in which the Olympic Games, the Olympic oath on behalf of all participants in the games;
3 Saying the oath on behalf of the judges for a fair judging;
4 Presentation of the winners of the competition medals;
5 Raising the national flag and the performance of the national anthem in honor of the winners.
Since 1932 the city of the building "Olympic Village" - a complex of accommodation for participants in the games. According to the Charter, the Games are competitions between individual athletes and not between the national teams. However, since 1908 has been extended t. N. unofficial team event - definition of space occupied by the teams on the number dialed and received medals in the competition points (points are awarded for the first 6 places in: 1st place - 7 points, 2nd - 5, 3rd - 4, 4 - e is 3, 5 th - 2, 6 th - 1).