Sport Training - Methods of psychological training of the athlete.

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  • Methods of psychological training of the athlete.


    The content of the specific means and methods used in the process of mental training of athletes, reveals the following classification.

    For the purpose of use means and methods of mental training are divided into:

    1) mobilizing;
    2) correcting (corrects);
    3) relaxing (relaxing).

    On the content of the means and methods of mental training are divided into the following groups:

    1) psycho-educational (make rail, motor, behavioral, organizing, social organizing, combined);
    2) mainly psychological (suggestive, ie. E. Inspiring, mental, combining word and image effects, social gaming, combined);
    3) mainly physiological (instrumental, psychopharmacological, breathing, combined).

    Field exposure means and methods of mental training are divided into:

    1) means aimed at correcting the perceptual-psychomotor sphere (ie. E. On the qualities associated with the perception of the situation and motor activities);
    2) a means of influencing the intellectual sphere;
    3) a means of influencing volitional;
    4) a means of influencing the emotional sphere;
    5) a means of influencing the moral sphere.

    By Readers means and methods of mental training are divided into:

    1) The funds allocated to mental training coach;
    2) controls directly athlete or team.

    By the time of the application of these tools and techniques are divided into:

    1) warning;
    2) precompetitive;
    3) competitive;
    4) postsorevnovatelnye.

    By the nature of their application is divided into self-regulation (autovozdeystviya) and geteroregulyatsiyu (exposure to other participants in the educational process - coach, psychologist, doctor, masseur etc.. Etc..). The choice of specific tools and techniques are significantly affected by the time factor, the place of competition, social and psychological climate in the team, the individual characteristics of the athlete.

    Mobilizing tools and techniques aimed at improving the mental tone, the formation of the installation on the active intellectual and motor activity of the athlete. These include such verbal means as samoprikazy, beliefs; psihoreguliruyuschie such exercises as "psihoreguliruyuschaya training" (version of "mobilization"), exercise for concentration; physiological effects such as the exciting option of acupuncture, stimulating massage.

    Corrective funds usually fall into the category of verbal and wear uniforms geterovozdeystviya. There can be different versions of sublimation (thoughts athlete on the outcome of the competition are displaced in the direction of their own assessment of the technical and tactical actions), how to change the definition of objectives, welcome rationalization, (when the athlete explain the mechanism of onset of stress, which makes it less dangerous), "Gymnastics feelings" in Stanislavsky (when the athlete intentionally offer to portray anger, rage, joy, doubt, and so on.).

    Relaxing facilities aimed at reducing the level of excitation and facilitate the process of mental and physical recovery. As examples can be called options Psi horeguliruyuschey workout "calm", "progressive relaxation" (consistent tension and relaxation of muscles), "pause psychoregulation", a soothing massage.

    Psycho-pedagogical tools within the competence not only a psychologist, but the coach is based on the verbal (verbal) impact and aimed mainly at the moral and ethical sphere athlete. Skillful use of the word - the most important means of mental training.

    Psychophysiological dubbed as physiological means by technology, but carrying a mental effects, mostly indirect. Such means are acupuncture, massage, workout, especially if it is psychologically well-built, and aims to form an athlete required mood.

    Significant section means mental training techniques are arbitrary self-regulation. According to a method of using such methods may be a belief, self-hypnosis (samoprikaz), movement and breathing exercises, the use of mechanisms of representation and imagination (eg, by means of ideomotor training).



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